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Introduction

1. This Update is organized into two sections:
a. Leases—Amendments in this section codify the Board's decision in the leases project and create a new Topic 842. For those amendments, see Section A.
b. Conforming Amendments—Amendments in this section conform guidance throughout the Accounting Standards Codification as a result of the Board's decisions in the leases project. For those amendments, see Section B.
2. The Accounting Standards Codification is amended as described in paragraphs 3–185. In some cases, to put the change in context, not only are the amended paragraphs shown but also the preceding and following paragraphs. Terms from the Master Glossary are linked (in bold type) the first time they appear in each Section and the first time they appear after a “>” symbol and a “>>” symbol heading. In the Implementation Guidance part of Section 55, Glossary terms are linked the first time they appear after a “>>” symbol heading and a “>>>” symbol heading. Added text is underlined, and deleted text is
struck out
.

Section A—Leases: Amendments to the Accounting Standards Codification

Addition of Topic 842

3. Add Subtopic 842-10, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows.
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Leases—Overall
Overview and Background
General
842-10-05-1 The Leases Topic includes the following Subtopics:
  1. Overall
  2. Lessee
  3. Lessor
  4. Sale and Leaseback Transactions
  5. Leveraged Lease Arrangements.
842-10-05-2 The Subtopics listed in paragraph 842-10-05-1 establish the requirements of financial accounting and reporting for lessees and lessors.
Objectives
General
842-10-10-1 This Topic specifies the accounting for leases. An entity should consider the terms and conditions of the contract and all relevant facts and circumstances when applying this Topic. An entity should apply this Topic consistently to leases with similar characteristics and in similar circumstances.
842-10-10-2 The objective of this Topic is to establish the principles that lessees and lessors shall apply to report useful information to users of financial statements about the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from a lease.
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
842-10-15-1 An entity shall apply this Topic to all leases, including subleases. Because a lease is defined as a contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration, this Topic does not apply to any of the following:
  1. Leases of intangible assets (see Topic 350, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other).
  2. Leases to explore for or use minerals, oil, natural gas, and similar nonregenerative resources (see Topics 930, Extractive Activities— Mining, and 932, Extractive Activities—Oil and Gas). This includes the intangible right to explore for those natural resources and rights to use the land in which those natural resources are contained (that is, unless those rights of use include more than the right to explore for natural resources), but not equipment used to explore for the natural resources.
  3. Leases of biological assets, including timber (see Topic 905, Agriculture).
  4. Leases of inventory (see Topic 330, Inventory).
  5. Leases of assets under construction (see Topic 360, Property, Plant, and Equipment).
> Identifying a Lease
842-10-15-2 At inception of a contract, an entity shall determine whether that contract is or contains a lease.
842-10-15-3 A contract is or contains a lease if the contract conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration. A period of time may be described in terms of the amount of use of an identified asset (for example, the number of production units that an item of equipment will be used to produce).
842-10-15-4 To determine whether a contract conveys the right to control the use of an identified asset (see paragraphs 842-10-15-17 through 15-26) for a period of time, an entity shall assess whether, throughout the period of use, the customer has both of the following:
  1. The right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the identified asset (see paragraphs 842-10-15-17 through 15-19)
  2. The right to direct the use of the identified asset (see paragraphs 842-10-15-20 through 15-26).
If the customer in the contract is a joint operation or a joint arrangement, an entity shall consider whether the joint operation or joint arrangement has the right to control the use of an identified asset throughout the period of use.
842-10-15-5 If the customer has the right to control the use of an identified asset for only a portion of the term of the contract, the contract contains a lease for that portion of the term.
842-10-15-6 An entity shall reassess whether a contract is or contains a lease only if the terms and conditions of the contract are changed.
842-10-15-7 In making the determination about whether a contract is or contains a lease, an entity shall consider all relevant facts and circumstances.
842-10-15-8 Paragraph 842-10-55-1 includes a flowchart that depicts the decision process for evaluating whether a contract is or contains a lease.
> > Identified Asset
842-10-15-9 An asset typically is identified by being explicitly specified in a contract. However, an asset also can be identified by being implicitly specified at the time that the asset is made available for use by the customer.
> > > Substantive Substitution Rights
842-10-15-10 Even if an asset is specified, a customer does not have the right to use an identified asset if the supplier has the substantive right to substitute the asset throughout the period of use. A supplier's right to substitute an asset is substantive only if both of the following conditions exist:
  1. The supplier has the practical ability to substitute alternative assets throughout the period of use (for example, the customer cannot prevent the supplier from substituting an asset, and alternative assets are readily available to the supplier or could be sourced by the supplier within a reasonable period of time).
  2. The supplier would benefit economically from the exercise of its right to substitute the asset (that is, the economic benefits associated with substituting the asset are expected to exceed the costs associated with substituting the asset).
842-10-15-11 An entity's evaluation of whether a supplier's substitution right is substantive is based on facts and circumstances at inception of the contract and shall exclude consideration of future events that, at inception, are not considered likely to occur. Examples of future events that, at inception of the contract, would not be considered likely to occur and, thus, should be excluded from the evaluation include, but are not limited to, the following:
  1. An agreement by a future customer to pay an above-market rate for use of the asset
  2. The introduction of new technology that is not substantially developed at inception of the contract
  3. A substantial difference between the customer's use of the asset, or the performance of the asset and the use or performance considered likely at inception of the contract
  4. A substantial difference between the market price of the asset during the period of use and the market price considered likely at inception of the contract.
842-10-15-12 If the asset is located at the customer's premises or elsewhere, the costs associated with substitution are generally higher than when located at the supplier's premises and, therefore, are more likely to exceed the benefits associated with substituting the asset.
842-10-15-13 If the supplier has a right or an obligation to substitute the asset only on or after either a particular date or the occurrence of a specified event, the supplier does not have the practical ability to substitute alternative assets throughout the period of use.
842-10-15-14 The supplier's right or obligation to substitute an asset for repairs or maintenance, if the asset is not operating properly, or if a technical upgrade becomes available, does not preclude the customer from having the right to use an identified asset.
842-10-15-15 If the customer cannot readily determine whether the supplier has a substantive substitution right, the customer shall presume that any substitution right is not substantive.
> > > Portions of Assets
842-10-15-16 A capacity portion of an asset is an identified asset if it is physically distinct (for example, a floor of a building or a segment of a pipeline that connects a single customer to the larger pipeline). A capacity or other portion of an asset that is not physically distinct (for example, a capacity portion of a fiber optic cable) is not an identified asset, unless it represents substantially all of the capacity of the asset and thereby provides the customer with the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the asset.
> > Right to Control the Use of the Identified Asset
> > > Right to Obtain the Economic Benefits from the Use of the Identified Asset
842-10-15-17 To control the use of an identified asset, a customer is required to have the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the asset throughout the period of use (for example, by having exclusive use of the asset throughout that period). A customer can obtain economic benefits from use of an asset directly or indirectly in many ways, such as by using, holding, or subleasing the asset. The economic benefits from use of an asset include its primary output and by-products (including potential cash flows derived from these items) and other economic benefits from using the asset that could be realized from a commercial transaction with a third party.
842-10-15-18 When assessing the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of an asset, an entity shall consider the economic benefits that result from use of the asset within the defined scope of a customer's right to use the asset in the contract (see paragraph 842-10-15-23). For example:
  1. If a contract limits the use of a motor vehicle to only one particular territory during the period of use, an entity shall consider only the economic benefits from use of the motor vehicle within that territory and not beyond.
  2. If a contract specifies that a customer can drive a motor vehicle only up to a particular number of miles during the period of use, an entity shall consider only the economic benefits from use of the motor vehicle for the permitted mileage and not beyond.
842-10-15-19 If a contract requires a customer to pay the supplier or another party a portion of the cash flows derived from use of an asset as consideration, those cash flows paid as consideration shall be considered to be part of the economic benefits that the customer obtains from use of the asset. For example, if a customer is required to pay the supplier a percentage of sales from use of retail space as consideration for that use, that requirement does not prevent the customer from having the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the retail space. That is because the cash flows arising from those sales are considered to be economic benefits that the customer obtains from use of the retail space, a portion of which it then pays to the supplier as consideration for the right to use that space.
> > > Right to Direct the Use of the Identified Asset
842-10-15-20 A customer has the right to direct the use of an identified asset throughout the period of use in either of the following situations:
a. The customer has the right to direct how and for what purpose the asset is used throughout the period of use (as described in paragraphs 842-10-15-24 through 15-26).
b. The relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the asset is used are predetermined (see paragraph 842-10-15-21) and at least one of the following conditions exists:
1. The customer has the right to operate the asset (or to direct others to operate the asset in a manner that it determines) throughout the period of use without the supplier having the right to change those operating instructions.
2. The customer designed the asset (or specific aspects of the asset) in a way that predetermines how and for what purpose the asset will be used throughout the period of use.
842-10-15-21 The relevant decisions about how and for what purpose an asset is used can be predetermined in a number of ways. For example, the relevant decisions can be predetermined by the design of the asset or by contractual restrictions on the use of the asset.
842-10-15-22 In assessing whether a customer has the right to direct the use of an asset, an entity shall consider only rights to make decisions about the use of the asset during the period of use unless the customer designed the asset (or specific aspects of the asset) in accordance with paragraph 842-10-15-20(b)(2).
Consequently, unless that condition exists, an entity shall not consider decisions that are predetermined before the period of use. For example, if a customer is able only to specify the output of an asset before the period of use, the customer does not have the right to direct the use of that asset. The ability to specify the output in a contract before the period of use, without any other decision-making rights relating to the use of the asset, gives a customer the same rights as any customer that purchases goods or services.
> > > > Protective Rights
842-10-15-23 A contract may include terms and conditions designed to protect the supplier's interest in the asset or other assets, to protect its personnel, or to ensure the supplier's compliance with laws or regulations. These are examples of protective rights. For example, a contract may specify the maximum amount of use of an asset or limit where or when the customer can use the asset, may require a customer to follow particular operating practices, or may require a customer to inform the supplier of changes in how an asset will be used. Protective rights typically define the scope of the customer's right of use but do not, in isolation, prevent the customer from having the right to direct the use of an asset.
> > > > How and for What Purpose an Asset Is Used
842-10-15-24 A customer has the right to direct how and for what purpose an asset is used throughout the period of use if, within the scope of its right of use defined in the contract, it can change how and for what purpose the asset is used throughout that period. In making this assessment, an entity considers the decision-making rights that are most relevant to changing how and for what purpose an asset is used throughout the period of use. Decision-making rights are relevant when they affect the economic benefits to be derived from use. The decision-making rights that are most relevant are likely to be different for different contracts, depending on the nature of the asset and the terms and conditions of the contract.
842-10-15-25 Examples of decision-making rights that, depending on the circumstances, grant the right to direct how and for what purpose an asset is used, within the defined scope of the customer's right of use, include the following:
  1. The right to change the type of output that is produced by the asset (for example, deciding whether to use a shipping container to transport goods or for storage, or deciding on the mix of products sold from a retail unit)
  2. The right to change when the output is produced (for example, deciding when an item of machinery or a power plant will be used)
  3. The right to change where the output is produced (for example, deciding on the destination of a truck or a ship or deciding where a piece of equipment is used or deployed)
  4. The right to change whether the output is produced and the quantity of that output (for example, deciding whether to produce energy from a power plant and how much energy to produce from that power plant).
842-10-15-26 Examples of decision-making rights that do not grant the right to direct how and for what purpose an asset is used include rights that are limited to operating or maintaining the asset. Although rights such as those to operate or maintain an asset often are essential to the efficient use of an asset, they are not rights to direct how and for what purpose the asset is used and often are dependent on the decisions about how and for what purpose the asset is used. Such rights (that is, to operate or maintain the asset) can be held by the customer or the supplier. The supplier often holds those rights to protect its investment in the asset. However, rights to operate an asset may grant the customer the right to direct the use of the asset if the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the asset is used are predetermined (see paragraph 842-10-15-20(b)(1)).
842-10-15-27 See Examples 1 through 10 (paragraphs 842-10-55-41 through 55-130) for illustrations of the requirements for identifying a lease.
> Separating Components of a Contract
842-10-15-28 After determining that a contract contains a lease in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-15-2 through 15-27, an entity shall identify the separate lease components within the contract. An entity shall consider the right to use an underlying asset to be a separate lease component (that is, separate from any other lease components of the contract) if both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The lessee can benefit from the right of use either on its own or together with other resources that are readily available to the lessee. Readily available resources are goods or services that are sold or leased separately (by the lessor or other suppliers) or resources that the lessee already has obtained (from the lessor or from other transactions or events).
  2. The right of use is neither highly dependent on nor highly interrelated with the other right(s) to use underlying assets in the contract. A lessee's right to use an underlying asset is highly dependent on or highly interrelated with another right to use an underlying asset if each right of use significantly affects the other.
842-10-15-29 The guidance in paragraph 842-10-15-28 notwithstanding, to classify and account for a lease of land and other assets, an entity shall account for the right to use land as a separate lease component unless the accounting effect of doing so would be insignificant (for example, separating the land element would have no effect on lease classification of any lease component or the amount recognized for the land lease component would be insignificant).
842-10-15-30 The consideration in the contract shall be allocated to each separate lease component and nonlease component of the contract (see paragraphs 842-10-15-33 through 15-37 for lessee allocation guidance and paragraphs 842-10-15-38 through 15-42 for lessor allocation guidance). Components of a contract include only those items or activities that transfer a good or service to the lessee. Consequently, the following are not components of a contract and do not receive an allocation of the consideration in the contract:
  1. Administrative tasks to set up a contract or initiate the lease that do not transfer a good or service to the lessee
  2. Reimbursement or payment of the lessor's costs. For example, a lessor may incur various costs in its role as a lessor or as owner of the underlying asset. A requirement for the lessee to pay those costs, whether directly to a third party or as a reimbursement to the lessor, does not transfer a good or service to the lessee separate from the right to use the underlying asset.
842-10-15-31 An entity shall account for each separate lease component separately from the nonlease components of the contract (that is, unless a lessee makes the accounting policy election described in paragraph 842-10-15-37). Nonlease components are not within the scope of this Topic and shall be accounted for in accordance with other Topics.
842-10-15-32 See Examples 11 through 14 (paragraphs 842-10-55-131 through 55-158) for illustrations of the requirements for allocating consideration to components of a contract.
> > Lessee
842-10-15-33 A lessee shall allocate (that is, unless the lessee makes the accounting policy election described in paragraph 842-10-15-37) the consideration in the contract to the separate lease components determined in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-15-28 through 15-31 and the nonlease components as follows:
  1. The lessee shall determine the relative standalone price of the separate lease components and the nonlease components on the basis of their observable standalone prices. If observable standalone prices are not readily available, the lessee shall estimate the standalone prices, maximizing the use of observable information. A residual estimation approach may be appropriate if the standalone price for a component is highly variable or uncertain.
  2. The lessee shall allocate the consideration in the contract on a relative standalone price basis to the separate lease components and the nonlease components of the contract.
Initial direct costs should be allocated to the separate lease components on the same basis as the lease payments.
842-10-15-34 A price is observable if it is the price that either the lessor or similar suppliers sell similar lease or nonlease components on a standalone basis.
842-10-15-35 The consideration in the contract for a lessee includes all of the payments described in paragraph 842-10-30-5, as well as all of the following payments that will be made during the lease term:
  1. Any fixed payments (for example, monthly service charges) or in substance fixed payments, less any incentives paid or payable to the lessee, other than those included in paragraph 842-10-30-5
  2. Any other variable payments that depend on an index or a rate, initially measured using the index or rate at the commencement date.
842-10-15-36 A lessee shall remeasure and reallocate the consideration in the contract upon either of the following:
  1. A remeasurement of the lease liability (for example, a remeasurement resulting from a change in the lease term or a change in the assessment of whether a lessee is or is not reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset) (see paragraph 842-20-35-4)
  2. The effective date of a contract modification that is not accounted for as a separate contract (see paragraph 842-10-25-8).
842-10-15-37 As a practical expedient, a lessee may, as an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset, choose not to separate nonlease components from lease components and instead to account for each separate lease component and the nonlease components associated with that lease component as a single lease component.
> > Lessor
842-10-15-38 A lessor shall allocate the consideration in the contract to the separate lease components and the nonlease components using the requirements in paragraphs 606-10-32-28 through 32-41. A lessor also shall allocate any capitalized costs (for example, initial direct costs or contract costs capitalized in accordance with Subtopic 340-40 on other assets and deferred costs—contracts with customers) to the separate lease components or nonlease components to which those costs relate.
842-10-15-39 The consideration in the contract for a lessor includes all of the amounts described in paragraph 842-10-15-35 and any other variable payment amounts that would be included in the transaction price in accordance with the guidance on variable consideration in Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers that specifically relates to either of the following:
  1. The lessor's efforts to transfer one or more goods or services that are not leases
  2. An outcome from transferring one or more goods or services that are not leases.
Any variable payment amounts accounted for as consideration in the contract shall be allocated entirely to the nonlease component(s) to which the variable payment specifically relates if doing so would be consistent with the transaction price allocation objective in paragraph 606-10-32-28.
842-10-15-40 If the terms of a variable payment amount other than those in paragraph 842-10-15-35 relate to a lease component, even partially, the lessor shall recognize those payments as income in profit or loss in the period when the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable payment is based occur (for example, when the lessee's sales on which the amount of the variable payment depends occur).
842-10-15-41 A lessor shall remeasure and reallocate the remaining consideration in the contract when there is a contract modification that is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8.
842-10-15-42 If the consideration in the contract changes, a lessor shall allocate those changes in accordance with the requirements in paragraphs 606-10-32-42 through 32-45.
> Other Considerations
842-10-15-43 Paragraph 815-10-15-79 explains that leases that are within the scope of this Topic are not derivative instruments subject to Subtopic 815-10 on derivatives and hedging although a derivative instrument embedded in a lease may be subject to the requirements of Section 815-15-25. Paragraph 815-10-15-80 explains that residual value guarantees that are subject to the guidance in this Topic are not subject to the guidance in Subtopic 815-10. Paragraph 815-10-15-81 requires that a third-party residual value guarantor consider the guidance in Subtopic 815-10 for all residual value guarantees that it provides to determine whether they are derivative instruments and whether they qualify for any of the scope exceptions in that Subtopic.
Glossary
Acquiree
The business or businesses that the acquirer obtains control of in a business combination. This term also includes a nonprofit activity or business that a not-for-profit acquirer obtains control of in an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity.
Acquirer
The entity that obtains control of the acquiree. However, in a business combination in which a variable interest entity (VIE) is acquired, the primary beneficiary of that entity always is the acquirer.
Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
A transaction or other event in which a not-for-profit acquirer obtains control of one or more nonprofit activities or businesses and initially recognizes their assets and liabilities in the acquirers financial statements. When applicable guidance in Topic 805 is applied by a not-for-profit entity, the term business combination has the same meaning as this term has for a for-profit entity. Likewise, a reference to business combinations in guidance that links to Topic 805 has the same meaning as a reference to acquisitions by not-for-profit entities.
Advance Refunding
A transaction involving the issuance of new debt to replace existing debt with the proceeds from the new debt placed in trust or otherwise restricted to retire the existing debt at a determinable future date or dates.
Business
An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members, or participants. Additional guidance on what a business consists of is presented in paragraphs 805-10-55-4 through 55-9
Business Combination
A transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. Transactions sometimes referred to as true mergers or mergers of equals also are business combinations. See also Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity.
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
The date on which a lessor makes an underlying asset available for use by a lessee. See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the commencement date.
Consideration in the Contract
See paragraph 842-10-15-35 for what constitutes the consideration in the contract for lessees and paragraph 842-10-15-39 for what constitutes consideration in the contract for lessors.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Direct Financing Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 but meets the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-3(b).
Discount Rate for the Lease
For a lessee, the discount rate for the lease is the rate implicit in the lease unless that rate cannot be readily determined. In that case, the lessee is required to use its incremental borrowing rate.
For a lessor, the discount rate for the lease is the rate implicit in the lease.
Economic Life
Either the period over which an asset is expected to be economically usable by one or more users or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from an asset by one or more users.
Effective Date of the Modification
The date that a lease modification is approved by both the lessee and the lessor.
Fair Value (second definition)
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Finance Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Fiscal Funding Clause
A provision by which the lease is cancellable if the legislature or other funding authority does not appropriate the funds necessary for the governmental unit to fulfill its obligations under the lease agreement.
Incremental Borrowing Rate
The rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment.
Initial Direct Costs
Incremental costs of a lease that would not have been incurred if the lease had not been obtained.
Inventory
The aggregate of those items of tangible personal property that have any of the following characteristics:
  1. Held for sale in the ordinary course of business
  2. In process of production for such sale
  3. To be currently consumed in the production of goods or services to be available for sale.
The term inventory embraces goods awaiting sale (the merchandise of a trading concern and the finished goods of a manufacturer), goods in the course of production (work in process), and goods to be consumed directly or indirectly in production (raw materials and supplies). This definition of inventories excludes long-term assets subject to depreciation accounting, or goods which, when put into use, will be so classified. The fact that a depreciable asset is retired from regular use and held for sale does not indicate that the item should be classified as part of the inventory. Raw materials and supplies purchased for production may be used or consumed for the construction of long-term assets or other purposes not related to production, but the fact that inventory items representing a small portion of the total may not be absorbed ultimately in the production process does not require separate classification. By trade practice, operating materials and supplies of certain types of entities such as oil producers are usually treated as inventory.
Lease
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lease Liability
A lessee's obligation to make the lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis.
Lease Modification
A change to the terms and conditions of a contract that results in a change in the scope of or the consideration for a lease (for example, a change to the terms and conditions of the contract that adds or terminates the right to use one or more underlying assets or extends or shortens the contractual lease term).
Lease Payments
See paragraph 842-10-30-5 for what constitutes lease payments from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Lease Receivable
A lessor's right to receive lease payments arising from a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease plus any amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term to the extent that it is guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, measured on a discounted basis.
Lease Term
The noncancellable period for which a lessee has the right to use an underlying asset, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor.
Legal Entity
Any legal structure used to conduct activities or to hold assets. Some examples of such structures are corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, grantor trusts, and other trusts.
Lessee
An entity that enters into a contract to obtain the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lessor
An entity that enters into a contract to provide the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Leveraged Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that was classified as a leveraged lease in accordance with the leases guidance in effect before the effective date and for which the commencement date is before the effective date.
Market Participants
Buyers and sellers in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability that have all of the following characteristics:
  1. They are independent of each other, that is, they are not related parties, although the price in a related-party transaction may be used as an input to a fair value measurement if the reporting entity has evidence that the transaction was entered into at market terms
  2. They are knowledgeable, having a reasonable understanding about the asset or liability and the transaction using all available information, including information that might be obtained through due diligence efforts that are usual and customary
  3. They are able to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability
  4. They are willing to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability, that is, they are motivated but not forced or otherwise compelled to do so.
Net Investment in the Lease
For a sales-type lease, the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset.
For a direct financing lease, the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset, net of any deferred selling profit.
Not-for-Profit Entity
An entity that possesses the following characteristics, in varying degrees, that distinguish it from a business entity:
  1. Contributions of significant amounts of resources from resource providers who do not expect commensurate or proportionate pecuniary return
  2. Operating purposes other than to provide goods or services at a profit
  3. Absence of ownership interests like those of business entities.
Entities that clearly fall outside this definition include the following:
  1. All investor-owned entities
  2. Entities that provide dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly and proportionately to their owners, members, or participants, such as mutual insurance entities, credit unions, farm and rural electric cooperatives, and employee benefit plans.
Operating Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, any lease other than a finance lease.
From the perspective of a lessor, any lease other than a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease.
Orderly Transaction
A transaction that assumes exposure to the market for a period before the measurement date to allow for marketing activities that are usual and customary for transactions involving such assets or liabilities; it is not a forced transaction (for example, a forced liquidation or distress sale).
Penalty
Any requirement that is imposed or can be imposed on the lessee by the lease agreement or by factors outside the lease agreement to do any of the following:
a. Disburse cash
b. Incur or assume a liability
c. Perform services
d. Surrender or transfer an asset or rights to an asset or otherwise forego an economic benefit, or suffer an economic detriment. Factors to consider in determining whether an economic detriment may be incurred include, but are not limited to, all of the following:
1. The uniqueness of purpose or location of the underlying asset
2. The availability of a comparable replacement asset
3. The relative importance or significance of the underlying asset to the continuation of the lessee's line of business or service to its customers
4. The existence of leasehold improvements or other assets whose value would be impaired by the lessee vacating or discontinuing use of the underlying asset
5. Adverse tax consequences
6.The ability or willingness of the lessee to bear the cost associated with relocation or replacement of the underlying asset at market rental rates or to tolerate other parties using the underlying asset.
Period of Use
The total period of time that an asset is used to fulfill a contract with a customer (including the sum of any nonconsecutive periods of time).
Probable (second definition)
The future event or events are likely to occur.
Public Business Entity
A public business entity is a business entity meeting any one of the criteria below. Neither a not-for-profit entity nor an employee benefit plan is a business entity.
  1. It is required by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) to file or furnish financial statements, or does file or furnish financial statements (including voluntary filers), with the SEC (including other entities whose financial statements or financial information are required to be or are included in a filing).
  2. It is required by the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the Act), as amended, or rules or regulations promulgated under the Act, to file or furnish financial statements with a regulatory agency other than the SEC.
  3. It is required to file or furnish financial statements with a foreign or domestic regulatory agency in preparation for the sale of or for purposes of issuing securities that are not subject to contractual restrictions on transfer.
  4. It has issued, or is a conduit bond obligor for, securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an over-the-counter market.
  5. It has one or more securities that are not subject to contractual restrictions on transfer, and it is required by law, contract, or regulation to prepare U.S. GAAP financial statements (including footnotes) and make them publicly available on a periodic basis (for example, interim or annual periods). An entity must meet both of these conditions to meet this criterion.
An entity may meet the definition of a public business entity solely because its financial statements or financial information is included in another entity's filing with the SEC. In that case, the entity is only a public business entity for purposes of financial statements that are filed or furnished with the SEC.
Rate Implicit in the Lease
The rate of interest that, at a given date, causes the aggregate present value of (a) the lease payments and (b) the amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term to equal the sum of (1) the fair value of the underlying asset minus any related investment tax credit retained and expected to be realized by the lessor and (2) any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor.
Related Parties
Related parties include:
  1. Affiliates of the entity
  2. Entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of Section 825-10-15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity
  3. Trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management
  4. Principal owners of the entity and members of their immediate families
  5. Management of the entity and members of their immediate families
  6. Other parties with which the entity may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests
  7. Other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
Remote
The chance of the future event or events occurring is slight.
Residual Value Guarantee
A guarantee made to a lessor that the value of an underlying asset returned to the lessor at the end of a lease will be at least a specified amount.
Right-of-Use Asset
An asset that represents a lessee's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term.
Sales-Type Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Selling Profit or Selling Loss
At the commencement date, selling profit or selling loss equals:
  1. The fair value of the underlying asset or the sum of (1) the lease receivable and (2) any lease payments prepaid by the lessee, if lower; minus
  2. The carrying amount of the underlying asset net of any unguaranteed residual asset; minus
  3. Any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor.
Short-Term Lease
A lease that, at the commencement date, has a lease term of 12 months or less and does not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise.
Standalone Price
The price at which a customer would purchase a component of a contract separately.
Sublease
A transaction in which an underlying asset is re-leased by the lessee (or intermediate lessor) to a third party (the sublessee) and the original (or head) lease between the lessor and the lessee remains in effect.
Underlying Asset
An asset that is the subject of a lease for which a right to use that asset has been conveyed to a lessee. The underlying asset could be a physically distinct portion of a single asset.
Unguaranteed Residual Asset
The amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term that is not guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, measured on a discounted basis.
Variable Interest Entity
A legal entity subject to consolidation according to the provisions of the Variable Interest Entities Subsections of Subtopic 810-10.
Variable Lease Payments
Payments made by a lessee to a lessor for the right to use an underlying asset that vary because of changes in facts or circumstances occurring after the commencement date, other than the passage of time.
Warranty
A guarantee for which the underlying is related to the performance (regarding function, not price) of nonfinancial assets that are owned by the guaranteed party. The obligation may be incurred in connection with the sale of goods or services; if so, it may require further performance by the seller after the sale has taken place.
Recognition
General
> Lease Classification
842-10-25-1 An entity shall classify each separate lease component at the commencement date. An entity shall not reassess the lease classification after the commencement date unless the contract is modified and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8. In addition, a lessee also shall reassess the lease classification after the commencement date if there is a change in the lease term or the assessment of whether the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset.
842-10-25-2 A lessee shall classify a lease as a finance lease and a lessor shall classify a lease as a sales-type lease when the lease meets any of the following criteria at lease commencement:
  1. The lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee by the end of the lease term.
  2. The lease grants the lessee an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise.
  3. The lease term is for the major part of the remaining economic life of the underlying asset. However, if the commencement date falls at or near the end of the economic life of the underlying asset, this criterion shall not be used for purposes of classifying the lease.
  4. The present value of the sum of the lease payments and any residual value guaranteed by the lessee that is not already reflected in the lease payments in accordance with paragraph 842-10-30-5(f) equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the underlying asset.
  5. The underlying asset is of such a specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to the lessor at the end of the lease term.
842-10-25-3 When none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 are met:
a. A lessee shall classify the lease as an operating lease.
b. A lessor shall classify the lease as either a direct financing lease or an operating lease. A lessor shall classify the lease as an operating lease unless both of the following criteria are met, in which case the lessor shall classify the lease as a direct financing lease:
1. The present value of the sum of the lease payments and any residual value guaranteed by the lessee that is not already reflected in the lease payments in accordance with paragraph 842-10-30-5(f) and/or any other third party unrelated to the lessor equals or exceeds substantially all of the fair value of the underlying asset.
2. It is probable that the lessor will collect the lease payments plus any amount necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee.
842-10-25-4 A lessor shall assess the criteria in paragraphs 842-10-25-2(d) and 842-10-25-3(b)(1) using the rate implicit in the lease. For purposes of assessing the criterion in paragraph 842-10-25-2(d), a lessor shall assume that no initial direct costs will be deferred if, at the commencement date, the fair value of the underlying asset is different from its carrying amount.
842-10-25-5 If a single lease component contains the right to use more than one underlying asset (see paragraphs 842-10-15-28 through 15-29), an entity shall consider the remaining economic life of the predominant asset in the lease component for purposes of applying the criterion in paragraph 842-10-25-2(c).
842-10-25-6 When classifying a sublease, an entity shall classify the sublease with reference to the underlying asset (for example, the item of property, plant, or equipment that is the subject of the lease) rather than with reference to the right-of-use asset.
842-10-25-7 See paragraphs 842-10-55-2 through 55-15 for implementation guidance on lease classification.
> Lease Modifications
842-10-25-8 An entity shall account for a modification to a contract as a separate contract (that is, separate from the original contract) when both of the following conditions are present:
  1. The modification grants the lessee an additional right of use not included in the original lease (for example, the right to use an additional asset).
  2. The lease payments increase commensurate with the standalone price for the additional right of use, adjusted for the circumstances of the particular contract. For example, the standalone price for the lease of one floor of an office building in which the lessee already leases other floors in that building may be different from the standalone price of a similar floor in a different office building, because it was not necessary for a lessor to incur costs that it would have incurred for a new lessee.
842-10-25-9 If a lease is modified and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8, the entity shall reassess the classification of the lease as of the effective date of the modification based on its modified terms and conditions and the facts and circumstances as of that date (for example, the fair value and remaining economic life of the underlying asset as of that date).
842-10-25-10 An entity shall account for initial direct costs, lease incentives, and any other payments made to or by the entity in connection with a modification to a lease in the same manner as those items would be accounted for in connection with a new lease.
> > Lessee
842-10-25-11 A lessee shall reallocate the remaining consideration in the contract and remeasure the lease liability using a discount rate for the lease determined at the effective date of the modification if a contract modification does any of the following:
  1. Grants the lessee an additional right of use not included in the original contract (and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8)
  2. Extends or reduces the term of an existing lease (for example, changes the lease term from five to eight years or vice versa), other than through the exercise of a contractual option to extend or terminate the lease (as described in paragraph 842-20-35-5)
  3. Fully or partially terminates an existing lease (for example, reduces the assets subject to the lease)
  4. Changes the consideration in the contract only.
842-10-25-12 In the case of (a), (b), or (d) in paragraph 842-10-25-11, the lessee shall recognize the amount of the remeasurement of the lease liability for the modified lease as an adjustment to the corresponding right-of-use asset.
842-10-25-13 In the case of (c) in paragraph 842-10-25-11, the lessee shall decrease the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset on a basis proportionate to the full or partial termination of the existing lease. Any difference between the reduction in the lease liability and the proportionate reduction in the right-of-use asset shall be recognized as a gain or a loss at the effective date of the modification.
842-10-25-14 If a finance lease is modified and the modified lease is classified as an operating lease, any difference between the carrying amount of the right-ofuse asset after recording the adjustment required by paragraph 842-10-25-12 or 842-10-25-13 and the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset that would result from applying the initial operating right-of-use asset measurement guidance in paragraph 842-20-30-5 to the modified lease shall be accounted for in the same manner as a rent prepayment or a lease incentive.
> > Lessor
842-10-25-15 If an operating lease is modified and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8, the lessor shall account for the modification as if it were a termination of the existing lease and the creation of a new lease that commences on the effective date of the modification as follows:
  1. If the modified lease is classified as an operating lease, the lessor shall consider any prepaid or accrued lease rentals relating to the original lease as a part of the lease payments for the modified lease.
  2. If the modified lease is classified as a direct financing lease or a salestype lease, the lessor shall derecognize any deferred rent liability or accrued rent asset and adjust the selling profit or selling loss accordingly.
842-10-25-16 If a direct financing lease is modified and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8, the lessor shall account for the modified lease as follows:
  1. If the modified lease is classified as a direct financing lease, the lessor shall adjust the discount rate for the modified lease so that the initial net investment in the modified lease equals the carrying amount of the net investment in the original lease immediately before the effective date of the modification.
  2. If the modified lease is classified as a sales-type lease, the lessor shall account for the modified lease in accordance with the guidance applicable to sales-type leases in Subtopic 842-30, with the commencement date of the modified lease being the effective date of the modification. In calculating the selling profit or selling loss on the lease, the fair value of the underlying asset is its fair value at the effective date of the modification and its carrying amount is the carrying amount of the net investment in the original lease immediately before the effective date of the modification.
  3. If the modified lease is classified as an operating lease, the carrying amount of the underlying asset equals the net investment in the original lease immediately before the effective date of the modification.
842-10-25-17 If a sales-type lease is modified and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8, the lessor shall account for the modified lease as follows:
  1. If the modified lease is classified as a sales-type or a direct financing lease, in the same manner as described in paragraph 842-10-25-16(a)
  2. If the modified lease is classified as an operating lease, in the same manner as described in paragraph 842-10-25-16(c).
842-10-25-18 See Examples 15 through 22 (paragraphs 842-10-55-159 through 55-209) for illustrations of the requirements on lease modifications.
> Contract Combinations
842-10-25-19 An entity shall combine two or more contracts, at least one of which is or contains a lease, entered into at or near the same time with the same counterparty (or related parties) and consider the contracts as a single transaction if any of the following criteria are met:
  1. The contracts are negotiated as a package with the same commercial objective(s).
  2. The amount of consideration to be paid in one contract depends on the price or performance of the other contract.
  3. The rights to use underlying assets conveyed in the contracts (or some of the rights of use conveyed in the contracts) are a single lease component in accordance with paragraph 842-10-15-28.
Initial Measurement
General
> Lease Term and Purchase Options
842-10-30-1 An entity shall determine the lease term as the noncancellable period of the lease, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor.
842-10-30-2 At the commencement date, an entity shall include the periods described in paragraph 842-10-30-1 in the lease term having considered all relevant factors that create an economic incentive for the lessee (that is, contractbased, asset-based, entity-based, and market-based factors). Those factors shall be considered together, and the existence of any one factor does not necessarily signify that a lessee is reasonably certain to exercise or not to exercise an option.
842-10-30-3 At the commencement date, an entity shall assess an option to purchase the underlying asset on the same basis as an option to extend or not to terminate a lease, as described in paragraph 842-10-30-2.
842-10-30-4 See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on commencement date and paragraphs 842-10-55-23 through 55-27 for implementation guidance on lease term and purchase options. See Examples 23 through 24 (paragraphs 842-10-55-210 through 55-224) for illustrations of the requirements on purchase options.
> Initial Measurement of the Lease Payments
842-10-30-5 At the commencement date, the lease payments shall consist of the following payments relating to the use of the underlying asset during the lease term:
  1. Fixed payments, including in substance fixed payments, less any lease incentives paid or payable to the lessee (see paragraphs 842-10-55-30 through 55-31).
  2. Variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate (such as the Consumer Price Index or a market interest rate), initially measured using the index or rate at the commencement date.
  3. The exercise price of an option to purchase the underlying asset if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option (assessed considering the factors in paragraph 842-10-55-26).
  4. Payments for penalties for terminating the lease if the lease term (as determined in accordance with paragraph 842-10-30-1) reflects the lessee exercising an option to terminate the lease.
  5. Fees paid by the lessee to the owners of a special-purpose entity for structuring the transaction. However, such fees shall not be included in the fair value of the underlying asset for purposes of applying paragraph 842-10-25-2(d).
  6. For a lessee only, amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under residual value guarantees (see paragraphs 842-10-55-34 through 55-36).
842-10-30-6 Lease payments do not include any of the following:
  1. Variable lease payments other than those in paragraph 842-10-30-5(b)
  2. Any guarantee by the lessee of the lessor's debt
  3. Amounts allocated to nonlease components in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-15-33 through 15-42.
842-10-30-7 Paragraph 410-20-15-3(e) addresses the scope application of Subtopic 410-20 on asset retirement obligations to obligations of a lessee in connection with a lease (see paragraph 842-10-55-37).
842-10-30-8 See Example 25 (paragraphs 842-10-55-225 through 55-234) for an illustration of the requirements on lessee accounting for variable lease payments and Example 26 (paragraphs 842-10-55-235 through 55-238) for an illustration of the requirements on termination penalties.
> > Initial Direct Costs
842-10-30-9 Initial direct costs for a lessee or a lessor may include, for example, either of the following:
  1. Commissions
  2. Payments made to an existing tenant to incentivize that tenant to terminate its lease.
842-10-30-10 Costs to negotiate or arrange a lease that would have been incurred regardless of whether the lease was obtained, such as fixed employee salaries, are not initial direct costs. The following items are examples of costs that are not initial direct costs:
  1. General overheads, including, for example, depreciation, occupancy and equipment costs, unsuccessful origination efforts, and idle time
  2. Costs related to activities performed by the lessor for advertising, soliciting potential lessees, servicing existing leases, or other ancillary activities
  3. Costs related to activities that occur before the lease is obtained, such as costs of obtaining tax or legal advice, negotiating lease terms and conditions, or evaluating a prospective lessees financial condition.
Subsequent Measurement
General
> Lease Term and Purchase Options
842-10-35-1 A lessee shall reassess the lease term or a lessee option to purchase the underlying asset only if and at the point in time that any of the following occurs:
  1. There is a significant event or a significant change in circumstances that is within the control of the lessee that directly affects whether the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise or not to exercise an option to extend or terminate the lease or to purchase the underlying asset.
  2. There is an event that is written into the contract that obliges the lessee to exercise (or not to exercise) an option to extend or terminate the lease.
  3. The lessee elects to exercise an option even though the entity had previously determined that the lessee was not reasonably certain to do so.
  4. The lessee elects not to exercise an option even though the entity had previously determined that the lessee was reasonably certain to do so.
842-10-35-2 See paragraphs 842-10-55-28 through 55-29 for implementation guidance on reassessing the lease term and lessee options to purchase the underlying asset.
842-10-35-3 A lessor shall not reassess the lease term or a lessee option to purchase the underlying asset unless the lease is modified and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8. When a lessee exercises an option to extend or terminate the lease or purchase the underlying asset, the lessor shall account for the exercise of that option in the same manner as a lease modification.
> Subsequent Measurement of the Lease Payments
842-10-35-4 A lessee shall remeasure the lease payments if any of the following occur:
a. The lease is modified, and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8.
b. A contingency upon which some or all of the variable lease payments that will be paid over the remainder of the lease term are based is resolved such that those payments now meet the definition of lease payments. For example, an event occurs that results in variable lease payments that were linked to the performance or use of the underlying asset becoming fixed payments for the remainder of the lease term.
c. There is a change in any of the following:
1. The lease term, as described in paragraph 842-10-35-1. A lessee shall determine the revised lease payments on the basis of the revised lease term.
2. The assessment of whether the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise or not to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset, as described in paragraph 842-10-35-1. A lessee shall determine the revised lease payments to reflect the change in the assessment of the purchase option.
3. Amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under residual value guarantees. A lessee shall determine the revised lease payments to reflect the change in amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under residual value guarantees.
842-10-35-5 When a lessee remeasures the lease payments in accordance with paragraph 842-10-35-4, variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate shall be measured using the index or rate at the remeasurement date.
842-10-35-6 A lessor shall not remeasure the lease payments unless the lease is modified and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8.
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
General
> Implementation Guidance
> > Identifying a Lease
842-10-55-1 The following flowchart depicts the decision process to follow in identifying whether a contract is or contains a lease. The flowchart does not include all of the guidance on identifying a lease in this Subtopic and is not intended as a substitute for the guidance on identifying a lease in this Subtopic.
> > Lease Classification
842-10-55-2 When determining lease classification, one reasonable approach to assessing the criteria in paragraphs 842-10-25-2(c) through (d) and 842-10-25-3(b)(1) would be to conclude:
  1. Seventy-five percent or more of the remaining economic life of the underlying asset is a major part of the remaining economic life of that underlying asset.
  2. A commencement date that falls at or near the end of the economic life of the underlying asset refers to a commencement date that falls within the last 25 percent of the total economic life of the underlying asset.
  3. Ninety percent or more of the fair value of the underlying asset amounts to substantially all the fair value of the underlying asset.
842-10-55-3 In some cases, it may not be practicable for an entity to determine the fair value of an underlying asset. In the context of this Topic, practicable means that a reasonable estimate of fair value can be made without undue cost or effort. It is a dynamic concept; what is practicable for one entity may not be practicable for another, what is practicable in one period may not be practicable in another, and what is practicable for one underlying asset (or class of underlying asset) may not be practicable for another. In those cases in which it is not practicable for an entity to determine the fair value of an underlying asset, lease classification should be determined without consideration of the criteria in paragraphs 842-10-25-2(d) and 842-10-25-3(b)(1).
> > > Transfer-of-Ownership Criterion
842-10-55-4 The criterion in paragraph 842-10-25-2(a) is met in leases that provide, upon the lessee's performance in accordance with the terms of the lease, that the lessor should execute and deliver to the lessee such documents (including, if applicable, a bill of sale) as may be required to release the underlying asset from the lease and to transfer ownership to the lessee.
842-10-55-5 The criterion in paragraph 842-10-25-2(a) also is met in situations in which the lease requires the payment by the lessee of a nominal amount (for example, the minimum fee required by the statutory regulation to transfer ownership) in connection with the transfer of ownership.
842-10-55-6 A provision in a lease that ownership of the underlying asset is not transferred to the lessee if the lessee elects not to pay the specified fee (whether nominal or otherwise) to complete the transfer is an option to purchase the underlying asset. Such a provision does not satisfy the transfer-of-ownership criterion in paragraph 842-10-25-2(a).
> > > Alternative Use Criterion
842-10-55-7 In assessing whether an underlying asset has an alternative use to the lessor at the end of the lease term in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-2(e), an entity should consider the effects of contractual restrictions and practical limitations on the lessor's ability to readily direct that asset for another use (for example, selling it or leasing it to an entity other than the lessee). A contractual restriction on a lessor's ability to direct an underlying asset for another use must be substantive for the asset not to have an alternative use to the lessor. A contractual restriction is substantive if it is enforceable. A practical limitation on a lessor's ability to direct an underlying asset for another use exists if the lessor would incur significant economic losses to direct the underlying asset for another use. A significant economic loss could arise because the lessor either would incur significant costs to rework the asset or would only be able to sell or re-lease the asset at a significant loss. For example, a lessor may be practically limited from redirecting assets that either have design specifications that are unique to the lessee or that are located in remote areas. The possibility of the contract with the customer being terminated is not a relevant consideration in assessing whether the lessor would be able to readily direct the underlying asset for another use.
> > > Effect of Investment Tax Credits
842-10-55-8 When evaluating the lease classification criteria in paragraphs 842-10-25-2(d) and 842-10-25-3(b)(1), the fair value of the underlying asset should exclude any related investment tax credit retained by the lessor and expected to be realized by the lessor.
> > > Residual Value Guarantees for a Portfolio of Underlying Assets
842-10-55-9 Lessors may obtain residual value guarantees for a portfolio of underlying assets for which settlement is not solely based on the residual value of the individual underlying assets. In such cases, the lessor is economically assured of receiving a minimum residual value for a portfolio of assets that are subject to separate leases but not for each individual asset. Accordingly, when an asset has a residual value in excess of the "guaranteed" amount, that excess is offset against shortfalls in residual value that exist in other assets in the portfolio.
842-10-55-10 Residual value guarantees of a portfolio of underlying assets preclude a lessor from determining the amount of the guaranteed residual value of any individual underlying asset within the portfolio. Consequently, no such amounts should be considered when evaluating the lease classification criteria in paragraphs 842-10-25-2(d) and 842-10-25-3(b)(1).
> > > Lease of an Acquiree
842-10-55-11 In a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity, the acquiring entity should retain the previous lease classification in accordance with this Subtopic unless there is a lease modification and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8.
> > > Lease of a Related Party
842-10-55-12 Leases between related parties should be classified in accordance with the lease classification criteria applicable to all other leases on the basis of the legally enforceable terms and conditions of the lease. In the separate financial statements of the related parties, the classification and accounting for the leases should be the same as for leases between unrelated parties.
> > > Lease Involving Facilities Owned by a Government Unit or Authority
842-10-55-13 Because of special provisions normally present in leases involving terminal space and other airport facilities owned by a governmental unit or authority, the economic life of such facilities for purposes of classifying a lease is essentially indeterminate. Likewise, it may not be practicable to determine the fair value of the underlying asset. If it is impracticable to determine the fair value of the underlying asset and such leases also do not provide for a transfer of ownership or a purchase option that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise, they should be classified as operating leases. This guidance also applies to leases of other facilities owned by a governmental unit or authority in which the rights of the parties are essentially the same as in a lease of airport facilities. Examples of such leases may be those involving facilities at ports and bus terminals. The guidance in this paragraph is intended to apply to leases only if all of the following conditions are met:
a. The underlying asset is owned by a governmental unit or authority.
b. The underlying asset is part of a larger facility, such as an airport, operated by or on behalf of the lessor.
c. The underlying asset is a permanent structure or a part of a permanent structure, such as a building, that normally could not be moved to a new location.
d. The lessor, or in some circumstances a higher governmental authority, has the explicit right under the lease agreement or existing statutes or regulations applicable to the underlying asset to terminate the lease at any time during the lease term, such as by closing the facility containing the underlying asset or by taking possession of the facility.
e. The lease neither transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee nor allows the lessee to purchase or otherwise acquire ownership of the underlying asset.
f. The underlying asset or equivalent asset in the same service area cannot be purchased or leased from a nongovernmental unit or authority. An equivalent asset in the same service area is an asset that would allow continuation of essentially the same service or activity as afforded by the underlying asset without any appreciable difference in economic results to the lessee.
842-10-55-14 Leases of underlying assets not meeting all of the conditions in paragraph 842-10-55-13 are subject to the same criteria for classifying leases under this Subtopic that are applicable to leases not involving government-owned property.
> > > Lessee Indemnification for Environmental Contamination
842-10-55-15 A provision that requires lessee indemnification for environmental contamination, whether for environmental contamination caused by the lessee during its use of the underlying asset over the lease term or for preexisting environmental contamination, should not affect the classification of the lease.
> > Lease Modifications
> > > Lease Modifications in Connection with the Refunding of Tax-Exempt Debt
842-10-55-16 In some situations, tax-exempt debt is issued to finance construction of a facility, such as a plant or hospital, that is transferred to a user of the facility by lease. A lease may serve as collateral for the guarantee of payments equivalent to those required to service the tax-exempt debt. Payments required by the terms of the lease are essentially the same, as to both amount and timing, as those required by the tax-exempt debt. A lease modification resulting from a refunding by the lessor of tax-exempt debt (including an advance refunding) should be accounted for in the same manner (that is, in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-25-8 through 25-18) as any other lease modification. For example, if the perceived economic advantages of the refunding are passed through to the lessee in the form of reduced lease payments, the lessee should account for the modification in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-12, while the lessor should account for the modification in accordance with the applicable guidance in paragraphs 842-10-25-15 through 25-17.
> > > Master Lease Agreements
842-10-55-17 Under a master lease agreement, the lessee may gain control over the use of additional underlying assets during the term of the agreement. If the agreement specifies a minimum number of units or dollar value of equipment, the lessee obtaining control over the use of those additional underlying assets is not a lease modification. Rather, the entity (whether a lessee or a lessor) applies the guidance in paragraphs 842-10-15-28 through 15-42 when identifying the separate lease components and allocating the consideration in the contract to those components. Paragraph 842-10-55-22 explains that a master lease agreement may, therefore, result in multiple commencement dates.
842-10-55-18 If the master lease agreement permits the lessee to gain control over the use of additional underlying assets during the term of the agreement but does not commit the lessee to doing so, the lessee's taking control over the use of an additional underlying asset should be accounted for as a lease modification in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-25-8 through 25-18.
> > Commencement Date
842-10-55-19 In some lease arrangements, the lessor may make the underlying asset available for use by the lessee (for example, the lessee may take possession of or be given control over the use of the underlying asset) before it begins operations or makes lease payments under the terms of the lease. During this period, the lessee has the right to use the underlying asset and does so for the purpose of constructing a lessee asset (for example, leasehold improvements).
842-10-55-20 The contract may require the lessee to make lease payments only after construction is completed and the lessee begins operations. Alternatively, some contracts require the lessee to make lease payments when it takes possession of or is given control over the use of the underlying asset. The timing of when lease payments begin under the contract does not affect the commencement date of the lease.
842-10-55-21 Lease costs (or income) associated with building and ground leases incurred (earned) during and after a construction period are for the right to use the underlying asset during and after construction of a lessee asset. There is no distinction between the right to use an underlying asset during a construction period and the right to use that asset after the construction period. Therefore, lease costs (or income) associated with ground or building leases that are incurred (earned) during a construction period should be recognized by the lessee (or lessor) in accordance with the guidance in Subtopics 842-20 and 842-30, respectively. That guidance does not address whether a lessee that accounts for the sale or rental of real estate projects under Topic 970 should capitalize rental costs associated with ground and building leases.
> > > Master Lease Agreements
842-10-55-22 There may be multiple commencement dates resulting from a master lease agreement. That is because a master lease agreement may cover a significant number of underlying assets, each of which are made available for use by the lessee on different dates. Although a master lease agreement may specify that the lessee must take a minimum number of units or dollar value of equipment, there will be multiple commencement dates unless all of the underlying assets subject to that minimum are made available for use by the lessee on the same date.
> > Lease Term and Purchase Options
842-10-55-23 An entity should determine the noncancellable period of a lease when determining the lease term. When assessing the length of the noncancellable period of a lease, an entity should apply the definition of a contract and determine the period for which the contract is enforceable. A lease is no longer enforceable when both the lessee and the lessor each have the right to terminate the lease without permission from the other party with no more than an insignificant penalty.
842-10-55-24 If only a lessee has the right to terminate a lease, that right is considered to be an option to terminate the lease available to the lessee that an entity considers when determining the lease term, as described in paragraph 842-10-30-1. If only a lessor has the right to terminate a lease, the noncancellable period of the lease includes the period covered by the option to terminate the lease.
842-10-55-25 The lease term begins at the commencement date and includes any rent-free periods provided to the lessee by the lessor.
> > > Reasonably Certain
842-10-55-26 At the commencement date, an entity assesses whether the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise or not to exercise an option by considering all economic factors relevant to that assessment—contract-based, asset-based, market-based, and entity-based factors. An entity's assessment often will require the consideration of a combination of those factors because they are interrelated. Examples of economic factors to consider include, but are not limited to, any of the following:
a. Contractual terms and conditions for the optional periods compared with current market rates, such as:
1. The amount of lease payments in any optional period
2. The amount of any variable lease payments or other contingent payments, such as payments under termination penalties and residual value guarantees
3. The terms and conditions of any options that are exercisable after initial optional periods (for example, the terms and conditions of a purchase option that is exercisable at the end of an extension period at a rate that is currently below market rates).
b. Significant leasehold improvements that are expected to have significant economic value for the lessee when the option to extend or terminate the lease or to purchase the underlying asset becomes exercisable.
c. Costs relating to the termination of the lease and the signing of a new lease, such as negotiation costs, relocation costs, costs of identifying another underlying asset suitable for the lessee's operations, or costs associated with returning the underlying asset in a contractually specified condition or to a contractually specified location.
d. The importance of that underlying asset to the lessee's operations, considering, for example, whether the underlying asset is a specialized asset and the location of the underlying asset.
> > > Fiscal Funding Clauses
842-10-55-27 The existence of a fiscal funding clause in a lease agreement requires an assessment of the likelihood of lease cancellation through exercise of the fiscal funding clause. If it is more than remote that the fiscal funding clause will be exercised, the lease term should include only those periods for which funding is reasonably certain.
> > Reassessing the Lease Term and Purchase Options
842-10-55-28 Examples of significant events or significant changes in circumstances that a lessee should consider in accordance with paragraph 842-10-35-1 include, but are not limited to, the following:
a. Constructing significant leasehold improvements that are expected to have significant economic value for the lessee when the option becomes exercisable
b. Making significant modifications or customizations to the underlying asset
c. Making a business decision that is directly relevant to the lessee's ability to exercise or not to exercise an option (for example, extending the lease of a complementary asset or disposing of an alternative asset)
d. Subleasing the underlying asset for a period beyond the exercise date of the option.
842-10-55-29 A change in market-based factors (such as market rates to lease or purchase a comparable asset) should not, in isolation, trigger reassessment of the lease term or a lessee option to purchase the underlying asset.
> > Lease Payments
> > > Lease Incentives
842-10-55-30 Lease incentives include both of the following:
a. Payments made to or on behalf of the lessee
b. Losses incurred by the lessor as a result of assuming a lessee's preexisting lease with a third party. In that circumstance, the lessor and the lessee should independently estimate any loss attributable to that assumption. For example, the lessee's estimate of the lease incentive could be based on a comparison of the new lease with the market rental rate available for similar underlying assets or the market rental rate from the same lessor without the lease assumption. The lessor should estimate any loss on the basis of the total remaining costs reduced by the expected benefits from the sublease of use of the assumed underlying asset.
> > > In Substance Fixed Payments
842-10-55-31 Lease payments include in substance fixed lease payments. In substance fixed payments are payments that may, in form, appear to contain variability but are, in effect, unavoidable. In substance fixed payments for a lessee or a lessor may include, for example, any of the following:
a. Payments that do not create genuine variability (such as those that result from clauses that do not have economic substance)
b. The lower of the payments to be made when a lessee has a choice about which set of payments it makes, although it must make at least one set of payments.
> > > Guarantees and Indemnifications
842-10-55-32 Paragraph 460-10-15-4(c) states that, except as provided in paragraph 460-10-15-7, the provisions of Subtopic 460-10 on guarantees apply to indemnification agreements (contracts) that contingently require an indemnifying party (guarantor) to make payments to an indemnified party (guaranteed party) based on changes in an underlying that is related to an asset, a liability, or an equity security of the indemnified party. Paragraph 460-10-55-23A provides related implementation guidance for a tax indemnification provided to a lessor.
842-10-55-33 A lessor should evaluate a commitment to guarantee performance of the underlying asset or to effectively protect the lessee from obsolescence of the underlying asset in accordance with paragraphs 606-10-55-30 through 55-35 on warranties. If the lessor's commitment is more extensive than a typical product warranty, it might indicate that the commitment is providing a service to the lessee that should be accounted for as a nonlease component of the contract.
> > > > Residual Value Guarantees
842-10-55-34 A lease provision requiring the lessee to make up a residual value deficiency that is attributable to damage, extraordinary wear and tear, or excessive usage is similar to variable lease payments in that the amount is not determinable at the commencement date. Such a provision does not constitute a lessee guarantee of the residual value.
842-10-55-35 If the lessor has the right to require the lessee to purchase the underlying asset by the end of the lease term, the stated purchase price is included in lease payments. That amount is, in effect, a guaranteed residual value that the lessee is obligated to pay on the basis of circumstances outside its control.
842-10-55-36 A residual value guarantee obtained by the lessee from an unrelated third party for the benefit of the lessor should not be used to reduce the amount of the lessee's lease payments under paragraph 842-10-30-5(f) except to the extent that the lessor explicitly releases the lessee from obligation, including the secondary obligation, which is if the guarantor defaults, a residual value deficiency must be made up. Amounts paid in consideration for a guarantee by an unrelated third party are executory costs and are not included in the lessee's lease payments.
> > > > Obligations to Return an Underlying Asset to its Original Condition
842-10-55-37 Obligations imposed by a lease agreement to return an underlying asset to its original condition if it has been modified by the lessee (for example, a requirement to remove a lessee-installed leasehold improvement) generally would not meet the definition of lease payments or variable lease payments and would be accounted for in accordance with Subtopic 410-20 on asset retirement and environmental obligations. In contrast, costs to dismantle and remove an underlying asset at the end of the lease term that are imposed by the lease agreement generally would be considered lease payments or variable lease payments.
> > > > Indemnification Clauses for Certain Tax Benefits
842-10-55-38 Some leases contain indemnification clauses that indemnify lessors on an after-tax basis for certain tax benefits that the lessor may lose if a change in the tax law precludes realization of those tax benefits. Although the indemnification payments may appear to meet the definition of variable lease payments, those payments are not of the nature normally expected to arise under variable lease payment provisions.
842-10-55-39 Because of the close association of the indemnification payments to specific aspects of the tax law, any payments should be accounted for in a manner that recognizes the tax law association. The lease classification should not be changed.
842-10-55-40 Paragraph 842-30-55-16 discusses a lessor's accounting for guarantee payments received.
> Illustrations
> > Illustration of Identifying a Lease
842-10-55-41 Examples 1 through 10 illustrate the identification of a lease.
> > > Example 1—Rail Cars
> > > > Case A—Contract Contains a Lease
842-10-55-42 A contract between Customer and a freight carrier (Supplier) provides Customer with the use of 10 rail cars of a particular type for 5 years. The contract specifies the rail cars; the cars are owned by Supplier. Customer determines when, where, and which goods are to be transported using the cars. When the cars are not in use, they are kept at Customer's premises. Customer can use the cars for another purpose (for example, storage) if it so chooses. However, the contract specifies that Customer cannot transport particular types of cargo (for example, explosives). If a particular car needs to be serviced or repaired, Supplier is required to substitute a car of the same type. Otherwise, and other than on default by Customer, Supplier cannot retrieve the cars during the five-year period.
842-10-55-43 The contract also requires Supplier to provide an engine and a driver when requested by Customer. Supplier keeps the engines at its premises and provides instructions to the driver detailing Customer's requests to transport goods. Supplier can choose to use any one of a number of engines to fulfill each of Customer's requests, and one engine could be used to transport not only Customer's goods, but also the goods of other customers (for example, if other customers require the transport of goods to destinations close to the destination requested by Customer and within a similar timeframe, Supplier can choose to attach up to 100 rail cars to the engine).
842-10-55-44 The contract contains leases of rail cars. Customer has the right to use 10 rail cars for 5 years.
842-10-55-45 There are 10 identified cars. The cars are explicitly specified in the contract. Once delivered to Customer, the cars can be substituted only when they need to be serviced or repaired. The engine used to transport the rail cars is not an identified asset because it is neither explicitly specified nor implicitly specified in the contract.
842-10-55-46 Customer has the right to control the use of the 10 rail cars throughout the 5-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the cars over the five-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the cars throughout the period of use, including when they are not being used to transport Customer's goods.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the cars. The contractual restrictions on the cargo that can be transported by the cars are protective rights of Supplier and define the scope of Customer's right to use the cars. Within the scope of its right of use defined in the contract, Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the cars are used by being able to decide when and where the rail cars will be used and which goods are transported using the cars. Customer also determines whether and how the cars will be used when not being used to transport its goods (for example, whether and when they will be used for storage). Customer has the right to change these decisions during the five-year period of use.
842-10-55-47 Although having an engine and driver (controlled by Supplier) to transport the rail cars is essential to the efficient use of the cars, Supplier's decisions in this regard do not give it the right to direct how and for what purpose the rail cars are used. Consequently, Supplier does not control the use of the cars during the period of use.
> > > > Case B—Contract Does Not Contain a Lease
842-10-55-48 The contract between Customer and Supplier requires Supplier to transport a specified quantity of goods by using a specified type of rail car in accordance with a stated timetable for a period of five years. The timetable and quantity of goods specified are equivalent to Customer having the use of 10 rail cars for 5 years. Supplier provides the rail cars, driver, and engine as part of the contract. The contract states the nature and quantity of the goods to be transported (and the type of rail car to be used to transport the goods). Supplier has a large pool of similar cars that can be used to fulfill the requirements of the contract.
Similarly, Supplier can choose to use any one of a number of engines to fulfill each of Customer's requests, and one engine could be used to transport not only Customer's goods, but also the goods of other customers. The cars and engines are stored at Supplier's premises when not being used to transport goods.
842-10-55-49 The contract does not contain a lease of rail cars or of an engine.
842-10-55-50 The rail cars and the engines used to transport Customer's goods are not identified assets. Supplier has the substantive right to substitute the rail cars and engine because:
a. Supplier has the practical ability to substitute each car and the engine throughout the period of use. Alternative cars and engines are readily available to Supplier, and Supplier can substitute each car and the engine without Customer's approval.
b. Supplier would benefit economically from substituting each car and the engine. There would be minimal, if any, cost associated with substituting each car or the engine because the cars and engines are stored at Supplier's premises and Supplier has a large pool of similar cars and engines. Supplier benefits from substituting each car or the engine in contracts of this nature because substitution allows Supplier to, for example, (1) use cars or an engine to fulfill a task for which the cars or engine are already positioned to perform (for example, a task at a rail yard close to the point of origin) or (2) use cars or an engine that would otherwise be sitting idle because they are not being used by a customer.
842-10-55-51 Accordingly, Customer does not direct the use and does not have the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of an identified car or an engine. Supplier directs the use of the rail cars and engine by selecting which cars and engine are used for each particular delivery and obtains substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the rail cars and engine. Supplier is only providing freight capacity.
> > > Example 2—Concession Space
842-10-55-52 A coffee company (Customer) enters into a contract with an airport operator (Supplier) to use a space in the airport to sell its goods for a three-year period. The contract states the amount of space and that the space may be located at any one of several boarding areas within the airport. Supplier has the right to change the location of the space allocated to Customer at any time during the period of use. There are minimal costs to Supplier associated with changing the space for the Customer: Customer uses a kiosk (that it owns) that can be moved easily to sell its goods. There are many areas in the airport that are available and that would meet the specifications for the space in the contract.
842-10-55-53 The contract does not contain a lease.
842-10-55-54 Although the amount of space Customer uses is specified in the contract, there is no identified asset. Customer controls its owned kiosk. However, the contract is for space in the airport, and this space can change at the discretion of Supplier. Supplier has the substantive right to substitute the space Customer uses because:
a. Supplier has the practical ability to change the space used by Customer throughout the period of use. There are many areas in the airport that meet the specifications for the space in the contract, and Supplier has the right to change the location of the space to other space that meets the specifications at any time without Customer's approval.
b. Supplier would benefit economically from substituting the space. There would be minimal cost associated with changing the space used by Customer because the kiosk can be moved easily. Supplier benefits from substituting the space in the airport because substitution allows Supplier to make the most effective use of the space at boarding areas in the airport to meet changing circumstances.
> > > Example 3—Fiber-Optic Cable
> > > > Case A—Contract Contains a Lease
842-10-55-55 Customer enters into a 15-year contract with a utilities company (Supplier) for the right to use 3 specified, physically distinct dark fibers within a larger cable connecting Hong Kong to Tokyo. Customer makes the decisions about the use of the fibers by connecting each end of the fibers to its electronic equipment (for example, Customer "lights" the fibers and decides what data and how much data those fibers will transport). If the fibers are damaged, Supplier is responsible for the repairs and maintenance. Supplier owns extra fibers but can substitute those for Customer's fibers only for reasons of repairs, maintenance, or malfunction (and is obliged to substitute the fibers in these cases).
842-10-55-56 The contract contains a lease of dark fibers. Customer has the right to use the 3 dark fibers for 15 years.
842-10-55-57 There are three identified fibers. The fibers are explicitly specified in the contract and are physically distinct from other fibers within the cable. Supplier cannot substitute the fibers other than for reasons of repairs, maintenance, or malfunction.
842-10-55-58 Customer has the right to control the use of the fibers throughout the 15-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the fibers over the 15-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the fibers throughout the period of use.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the fibers. Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the fibers are used by deciding when and whether to light the fibers and when and how much output the fibers will produce (that is, what data and how much data those fibers will transport). Customer has the right to change these decisions during the 15-year period of use.
842-10-55-59 Although Supplier's decisions about repairing and maintaining the fibers are essential to their efficient use, those decisions do not give Supplier the right to direct how and for what purpose the fibers are used. Consequently, Supplier does not control the use of the fibers during the period of use.
> > > > Case B—Contract Does Not Contain a Lease
842-10-55-60 Customer enters into a 15-year contract with Supplier for the right to use a specified amount of capacity within a cable connecting Hong Kong to Tokyo. The specified amount is equivalent to Customer having the use of the full capacity of 3 strands within the cable (the cable contains 15 fibers with similar capacities). Supplier makes decisions about the transmission of data (that is, Supplier lights the fibers and makes decisions about which fibers are used to transmit Customer's traffic and about the electronic equipment that Supplier owns and connects to the fibers).
842-10-55-61 The contract does not contain a lease.
842-10-55-62 Supplier makes all decisions about the transmission of its customers' data, which requires the use of only a portion of the capacity of the cable for each customer. The capacity portion that will be provided to Customer is not physically distinct from the remaining capacity of the cable and does not represent substantially all of the capacity of the cable. Consequently, Customer does not have the right to use an identified asset.
> > > Example 4—Retail Unit
842-10-55-63 Customer enters into a contract with property owner (Supplier) to use Retail Unit A for a five-year period. Retail Unit A is part of a larger retail space with many retail units.
842-10-55-64 Customer is granted the right to use Retail Unit A. Supplier can require Customer to relocate to another retail unit. In that case, Supplier is required to provide Customer with a retail unit of similar quality and specifications to Retail Unit A and to pay for Customer's relocation costs. Supplier would benefit economically from relocating Customer only if a major new tenant were to decide to occupy a large amount of retail space at a rate sufficiently favorable to cover the costs of relocating Customer and other tenants in the retail space that the new tenant will occupy. However, although it is possible that those circumstances will arise, at inception of the contract, it is not likely that those circumstances will arise. For example, whether a major new tenant will decide to lease a large amount of retail space at a rate that would be sufficiently favorable to cover the costs of relocating Customer is highly susceptible to factors outside Supplier's influence.
842-10-55-65 The contract requires Customer to use Retail Unit A to operate its well-known store brand to sell its goods during the hours that the larger retail space is open. Customer makes all of the decisions about the use of the retail unit during the period of use. For example, Customer decides on the mix of goods sold from the unit, the pricing of the goods sold, and the quantities of inventory held. Customer also controls physical access to the unit throughout the five-year period of use.
842-10-55-66 The contract requires Customer to make fixed payments to Supplier as well as variable payments that are a percentage of sales from Retail Unit A.
842-10-55-67 Supplier provides cleaning and security services as well as advertising services as part of the contract.
842-10-55-68 The contract contains a lease of retail space. Customer has the right to use Retail Unit A for five years.
842-10-55-69 Retail Unit A is an identified asset. It is explicitly specified in the contract. Supplier has the practical ability to substitute the retail unit, but could benefit economically from substitution only in specific circumstances. Supplier's substitution right is not substantive because, at inception of the contract, those circumstances are not considered likely to arise.
842-10-55-70 Customer has the right to control the use of Retail Unit A throughout the five-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of Retail Unit A over the five-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of Retail Unit A throughout the period of use. Although a portion of the cash flows derived from sales from Retail Unit A will flow from Customer to Supplier, this represents consideration that Customer pays Supplier for the right to use the retail unit. It does not prevent Customer from having the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of Retail Unit A.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of Retail Unit A. The contractual restrictions on the goods that can be sold from Retail Unit A and when Retail Unit A is open define the scope of Customer's right to use Retail Unit A. Within the scope of its right of use defined in the contract, Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose Retail Unit A is used by being able to decide, for example, the mix of products that will be sold in the retail unit and the sale price for those products. Customer has the right to change these decisions during the five-year period of use.
842-10-55-71 Although cleaning, security, and advertising services are essential to the efficient use of Retail Unit A, Supplier's decisions in this regard do not give it the right to direct how and for what purpose Retail Unit A is used. Consequently, Supplier does not control the use of Retail Unit A during the period of use, and Supplier's decisions do not affect Customer's control of the use of Retail Unit A.
> > > Example 5—Truck Rental
842-10-55-72 Customer enters into a contract with Supplier for the use of a truck for one week to transport cargo from New York to San Francisco. Supplier does not have substitution rights. Only cargo specified in the contract is permitted to be transported on this truck for the period of the contract. The contract specifies a maximum distance that the truck can be driven. Customer is able to choose the details of the journey (speed, route, rest stops, and so forth) within the parameters of the contract. Customer does not have the right to continue using the truck after the specified trip is complete.
842-10-55-73 The cargo to be transported and the timing and location of pickup in New York and delivery in San Francisco are specified in the contract.
842-10-55-74 Customer is responsible for driving the truck from New York to San Francisco.
842-10-55-75 The contract contains a lease of a truck. Customer has the right to use the truck for the duration of the specified trip.
842-10-55-76 There is an identified asset. The truck is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have the right to substitute the truck.
842-10-55-77 Customer has the right to control the use of the truck throughout the period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from the use of the truck over the period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the truck throughout the period of use.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the truck. How and for what purpose the truck will be used (that is, the transport of specified cargo from New York to San Francisco within a specified time frame) are predetermined in the contract. Customer directs the use of the truck because it has the right to operate the truck (for example, speed, route, and rest stops) throughout the period of use. Customer makes all of the decisions about the use of the truck that can be made during the period of use through its control of the operations of the truck.
842-10-55-78 Because the duration of the contract is one week, this lease meets the definition of a short-term lease.
> > > Example 6—Ship
> > > > Case A—Contract Does Not Contain a Lease
842-10-55-79 Customer enters into a contract with a ship owner (Supplier) for the transport of cargo from Rotterdam to Sydney on a specified ship. The ship is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have substitution rights. The cargo will occupy substantially all of the capacity of the ship. The contract specifies the cargo to be transported on the ship and the dates of pickup and delivery.
842-10-55-80 Supplier operates and maintains the ship and is responsible for the safe passage of the cargo onboard the ship. Customer is prohibited from hiring another operator for the ship or operating the ship itself during the term of the contract.
842-10-55-81 The contract does not contain a lease.
842-10-55-82 There is an identified asset. The ship is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have the right to substitute that specified ship.
842-10-55-83 Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the ship over the period of use. Its cargo will occupy substantially all of the capacity of the ship, thereby preventing other parties from obtaining economic benefits from use of the ship.
842-10-55-84 However, Customer does not have the right to control the use of the ship because it does not have the right to direct its use. Customer does not have the right to direct how and for what purpose the ship is used. How and for what purpose the ship will be used (that is, the transport of specified cargo from Rotterdam to Sydney within a specified time frame) are predetermined in the contract. Customer has no right to change how and for what purpose the ship is used during the period of use. Customer has no other decision-making rights about the use of the ship during the period of use (for example, it does not have the right to operate the ship) and did not design the ship. Customer has the same rights regarding the use of the ship as if it were one of multiple customers transporting cargo on the ship.
> > > > Case B—Contract Contains a Lease
842-10-55-85 Customer enters into a contract with Supplier for the use of a specified ship for a five-year period. The ship is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have substitution rights.
842-10-55-86 Customer decides what cargo will be transported and whether, when, and to which ports the ship will sail, throughout the five-year period of use, subject to restrictions specified in the contract. Those restrictions prevent Customer from sailing the ship into waters at a high risk of piracy or carrying hazardous materials as cargo.
842-10-55-87 Supplier operates and maintains the ship and is responsible for the safe passage of the cargo onboard the ship. Customer is prohibited from hiring another operator for the ship or operating the ship itself during the term of the contract.
842-10-55-88 The contract contains a lease. Customer has the right to use the ship for five years.
842-10-55-89 There is an identified asset. The ship is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have the right to substitute that specified ship.
842-10-55-90 Customer has the right to control the use of the ship throughout the five-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the ship over the five-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the ship throughout the period of use.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the ship. The contractual restrictions about where the ship can sail and the cargo to be transported by the ship define the scope of Customer's right to use the ship. They are protective rights that protect Supplier's investment in the ship and Supplier's personnel. Within the scope of its right of use, Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the ship is used throughout the five-year period of use because it decides whether, where, and when the ship sails, as well as the cargo it will transport. Customer has the right to change these decisions throughout the five-year period of use.
842-10-55-91 Although the operation and maintenance of the ship are essential to its efficient use, Supplier's decisions in this regard do not give it the right to direct how and for what purpose the ship is used. Instead, Supplier's decisions are dependent on Customer's decisions about how and for what purpose the ship is used.
> > > Example 7—Aircraft
842-10-55-92 Customer enters into a contract with an aircraft owner (Supplier) for the use of an explicitly specified aircraft for a two-year period. The contract details the interior and exterior specifications for the aircraft.
842-10-55-93 There are contractual and legal restrictions in the contract on where the aircraft can fly. Subject to those restrictions, Customer determines where and when the aircraft will fly and which passengers and cargo will be transported on the aircraft.
842-10-55-94 Supplier is responsible for operating the aircraft, using its own crew. Customer is prohibited from hiring another operator for the aircraft or operating the aircraft itself during the term of the contract.
842-10-55-95 Supplier is permitted to substitute the aircraft at any time during the two-year period and must substitute the aircraft if it is not working. Any substitute aircraft must meet the interior and exterior specifications in the contract. There are significant costs involved in outfitting an aircraft in Supplier's fleet to meet Customer's specifications.
842-10-55-96 The contract contains a lease. Customer has the right to use the aircraft for two years.
842-10-55-97 There is an identified asset. The aircraft is explicitly specified in the contract, and although Supplier can substitute the aircraft, its substitution right is not substantive. Supplier's substitution right is not substantive because of the significant costs involved in outfitting another aircraft to meet the specifications required by the contract such that Supplier is not expected to benefit economically from substituting the aircraft.
842-10-55-98 Customer has the right to control the use of the aircraft throughout the two-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the aircraft over the two-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the aircraft throughout the period of use.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the aircraft. The restrictions on where the aircraft can fly define the scope of Customer’s right to use the aircraft. Within the scope of its right of use, Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the aircraft is used throughout the two-year period of use because it decides whether, where, and when the aircraft travels as well as the passengers and cargo it will transport. Customer has the right to change these decisions throughout the two-year period of use.
842-10-55-99 Although the operation of the aircraft is essential to its efficient use, Supplier's decisions in this regard do not give it the right to direct how and for what purpose the aircraft is used. Consequently, Supplier does not control the use of the aircraft during the period of use, and Supplier's decisions do not affect Customer's control of the use of the aircraft.
> > > Example 8—Contract for Shirts
842-10-55-100 Customer enters into a contract with a manufacturer (Supplier) to purchase a particular type, quality, and quantity of shirts for a three-year period. The type, quality, and quantity of shirts are specified in the contract.
842-10-55-101 Supplier has only one factory that can meet the needs of Customer. Supplier is unable to supply the shirts from another factory or source the shirts from a third-party supplier. The capacity of the factory exceeds the output for which Customer has contracted (that is, Customer has not contracted for substantially all of the capacity of the factory).
842-10-55-102 Supplier makes all decisions about the operations of the factory, including the production level at which to run the factory and which customer contracts to fulfill with the output of the factory that is not used to fulfill Customer's contract.
842-10-55-103 The contract does not contain a lease.
842-10-55-104 The factory is an identified asset. The factory is implicitly specified because Supplier can fulfill the contract only through the use of this asset.
842-10-55-105 However, Customer does not control the use of the factory because it does not have the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the factory. This is because Supplier could decide to use the factory to fulfill other customer contracts during the period of use.
842-10-55-106 Customer also does not control the use of the factory because it does not have the right to direct the use of the factory. Customer does not have the right to direct how and for what purpose the factory is used during the three-year period of use. Customer's rights are limited to specifying output from the factory in the contract with Supplier. Customer has the same rights regarding the use of the factory as other customers purchasing shirts from the factory. Supplier has the right to direct the use of the factory because Supplier can decide how and for what purpose the factory is used (that is, Supplier has the right to decide the production level at which to run the factory and which customer contracts to fulfill with the output produced).
842-10-55-107 Either the fact that Customer does not have the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the factory or the fact that Customer does not have the right to direct the use of the factory would be sufficient in isolation to conclude that Customer does not control the use of the factory.
> > > Example 9—Contract for Energy/Power
> > > > Case A—Contract Contains a Lease
842-10-55-108 A utility company (Customer) enters into a contract with a power company (Supplier) to purchase all of the electricity produced by a new solar farm for 20 years. The solar farm is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier has no substitution rights. The solar farm is owned by Supplier, and the energy cannot be provided to Customer from another asset. Customer designed the solar farm before it was constructed—Customer hired experts in solar energy to assist in determining the location of the farm and the engineering of the equipment to be used. Supplier is responsible for building the solar farm to Customer's specifications and then operating and maintaining it. There are no decisions to be made about whether, when, or how much electricity will be produced because the design of the asset has predetermined these decisions. Supplier will receive tax credits relating to the construction and ownership of the solar farm, while Customer receives renewable energy credits that accrue from use of the solar farm.
842-10-55-109 The contract contains a lease. Customer has the right to use the solar farm for 20 years.
842-10-55-110 There is an identified asset because the solar farm is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have the right to substitute the specified solar farm.
842-10-55-111 Customer has the right to control the use of the solar farm throughout the 20-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the solar farm over the 20-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the solar farm; it takes all of the electricity produced by the farm over the 20-year period of use as well as the renewable energy credits that are a by-product from use of the solar farm. Although Supplier will be receiving economic benefits from the solar farm in the form of tax credits, those economic benefits relate to the ownership of the solar farm rather than the use of the solar farm and, thus, are not considered in this assessment.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the solar farm. Neither Customer nor Supplier decides how and for what purpose the solar farm is used during the period of use because those decisions are predetermined by the design of the asset (that is, the design of the solar farm has, in effect, programmed into the asset any relevant decision-making rights about how and for what purpose the solar farm is used throughout the period of use). Customer does not operate the solar farm; Supplier makes the decisions about the operation of the solar farm. However, Customer's design of the solar farm has given it the right to direct the use of the farm (as described in paragraph 842-10-15-20(b)(2)). Because the design of the solar farm has predetermined how and for what purpose the asset will be used throughout the period of use, Customer's control over that design is substantively no different from Customer controlling those decisions.
> > > > Case B—Contract Does Not Contain a Lease
842-10-55-112 Customer enters into a contract with Supplier to purchase all of the power produced by an explicitly specified power plant for three years. The power plant is owned and operated by Supplier. Supplier is unable to provide power to Customer from another plant. The contract sets out the quantity and timing of power that the power plant will produce throughout the period of use, which cannot be changed in the absence of extraordinary circumstances (for example, emergency situations). Supplier operates and maintains the plant on a daily basis in accordance with industry-approved operating practices. Supplier designed the power plant when it was constructed some years before entering into the contract with Customer; Customer had no involvement in that design.
842-10-55-113 The contract does not contain a lease.
842-10-55-114 There is an identified asset because the power plant is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have the right to substitute the specified plant.
842-10-55-115 Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the identified power plant over the three-year period of use. Customer will take all of the power produced by the power plant over the three-year term of the contract.
842-10-55-116 However, Customer does not have the right to control the use of the power plant because it does not have the right to direct its use. Customer does not have the right to direct how and for what purpose the plant is used. How and for what purpose the plant is used (that is, whether, when, and how much power the plant will produce) are predetermined in the contract. Customer has no right to change how and for what purpose the plant is used during the period of use, nor does it have any other decision-making rights about the use of the power plant during the period of use (for example, it does not operate the power plant) and did not design the plant. Supplier is the only party that can make decisions about the plant during the period of use by making the decisions about how the plant is operated and maintained. Customer has the same rights regarding the use of the plant as if it were one of many customers obtaining power from the plant.
> > > > Case C—Contract Contains a Lease
842-10-55-117 Customer enters into a contract with Supplier to purchase all of the power produced by an explicitly specified power plant for 10 years. The contract states that Customer has rights to all of the power produced by the plant (that is, Supplier cannot use the plant to fulfill other contracts).
842-10-55-118 Customer issues instructions to Supplier about the quantity and timing of the delivery of power. If the plant is not producing power for Customer, it does not operate.
842-10-55-119 Supplier operates and maintains the plant on a daily basis in accordance with industry-approved operating practices.
842-10-55-120 The contract contains a lease. Customer has the right to use the power plant for 10 years.
842-10-55-121 There is an identified asset. The power plant is explicitly specified in the contract, and Supplier does not have the right to substitute the specified plant.
842-10-55-122 Customer has the right to control the use of the power plant throughout the 10-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the power plant over the 10-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the power plant; it has rights to all of the power produced by the power plant throughout the 10-year period of use.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the power plant. Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the power plant is used because it has the right to determine whether, when, and how much power the plant will produce (that is, the timing and quantity, if any, of power produced) throughout the period of use. Because Supplier is prevented from using the power plant for another purpose, Customer's decision making about the timing and quantity of power produced, in effect, determines when and whether the plant produces output.
842-10-55-123 Although the operation and maintenance of the power plant are essential to its efficient use, Supplier's decisions in this regard do not give it the right to direct how and for what purpose the power plant is used. Consequently, Supplier does not control the use of the power plant during the period of use. Instead, Supplier's decisions are dependent on Customer's decisions about how and for what purpose the power plant is used.
> > > Example 10—Contract for Network Services
> > > > Case A—Contract Does Not Contain a Lease
842-10-55-124 Customer enters into a contract with a telecommunications company (Supplier) for network services for two years. The contract requires Supplier to supply network services that meet a specified quality level. To provide the services, Supplier installs and configures servers at Customer's premises; Supplier determines the speed and quality of data transportation in the network using the servers. Supplier can reconfigure or replace the servers when needed to continuously provide the quality of network services defined in the contract. Customer does not operate the servers or make any significant decisions about their use.
842-10-55-125 The contract does not contain a lease. Instead, the contract is a service contract in which Supplier uses the equipment to meet the level of network services determined by Customer.
842-10-55-126 Customer does not control the use of the servers because Customer's only decision-making rights relate to deciding on the level of network services (the output of the servers) before the period of use—the level of network services cannot be changed during the period of use without modifying the contract. For example, even though Customer produces the data to be transported, that activity does not directly affect the configuration of the network services and, thus, it does not affect how and for what purpose the servers are used. Supplier is the only party that can make decisions about the use of the servers during the period of use. Supplier has the right to decide how data are transported using the servers, whether to reconfigure the servers, and whether to use the servers for another purpose. Accordingly, Supplier controls the use of the servers in providing network services to Customer. There is no need to assess whether the servers are identified assets because Customer does not have the right to control the use of the servers.
> > > > Case B—Contract Contains a Lease
842-10-55-127 Customer enters into a contract with an information technology company (Supplier) for the use of an identified server for three years. Supplier delivers and installs the server at Customer's premises in accordance with Customer's instructions and provides repair and maintenance services for the server, as needed, throughout the period of use. Supplier substitutes the server only in the case of malfunction. Customer decides which data to store on the server and how to integrate the server within its operations. Customer can change its decisions in this regard throughout the period of use.
842-10-55-128 The contract contains a lease. Customer has the right to use the server for three years.
842-10-55-129 There is an identified asset. The server is explicitly specified in the contract. Supplier can substitute the server only if it is malfunctioning.
842-10-55-130 Customer has the right to control the use of the server throughout the three-year period of use because:
a. Customer has the right to obtain substantially all of the economic benefits from use of the server over the three-year period of use. Customer has exclusive use of the server throughout the period of use.
b. Customer has the right to direct the use of the server. Customer makes the relevant decisions about how and for what purpose the server is used because it has the right to decide which aspect of its operations the server is used to support and which data it stores on the server. Customer is the only party that can make decisions about the use of the server during the period of use.
> > Illustrations of Allocating Consideration to Components of a Contract
842-10-55-131 Examples 11 through 14 illustrate separating components of a contract.
> > > Example 11—Allocation of Consideration to Lease and Nonlease Components of a Contract
> > > > Case A—Allocation of Consideration in the Contract
842-10-55-132 Lessor leases a bulldozer, a truck, and a crane to Lessee to be used in Lessee's construction operations for three years. Lessor also agrees to maintain each piece of equipment throughout the lease term. The total consideration in the contract is $600,000, payable in $200,000 annual installments.
842-10-55-133 Lessee and Lessor both conclude that the leases of the bulldozer, the truck, and the crane are each separate lease components because both of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-15-28 are met. That is:
  1. The criterion in paragraph 842-10-15-28(a) is met because Lessee can benefit from each of the three pieces of equipment on its own or together with other readily available resources (for example, Lessee could readily lease or purchase an alternative truck or crane to use with the bulldozer).
  2. The criterion in paragraph 842-10-15-28(b) is met because, despite the fact that Lessee is leasing all three machines for one purpose (that is, to engage in construction operations), the machines are not highly dependent on or highly interrelated with each other. The machines are not, in effect, inputs to a combined single item for which Lessee is contracting. Lessor can fulfill each of its obligations to lease one of the underlying assets independently of its fulfillment of the other lease obligations, and Lessee's ability to derive benefit from the lease of each piece of equipment is not significantly affected by its decision to lease or not lease the other equipment from Lessor.
842-10-55-134 In accordance with paragraph 842-10-15-31, Lessee and Lessor will account for the nonlease maintenance services components separate from the three separate lease components (unless Lessee elects the practical expedient— see Case B [paragraphs 842-10-55-138 through 55-140]). In accordance with the identifying performance obligations guidance in paragraphs 606-10-25-19 through 25-22, Lessor further concludes that its maintenance services for each piece of leased equipment are distinct and therefore separate performance obligations, resulting in the conclusion that there are three separate lease components and three separate nonlease components (that is, three maintenance service performance obligations).
842-10-55-135 Lessor allocates the consideration in the contract to the separate lease components and nonlease components by applying the guidance in paragraphs 606-10-32-28 through 32-41. The consideration allocated to each separate lease component constitutes the lease payments for purposes of Lessor's accounting for those components.
842-10-55-136 Lessee allocates the consideration in the contract to the separate lease and nonlease components. Several suppliers provide maintenance services that relate to similar equipment such that there are observable standalone prices for the maintenance services for each piece of leased equipment. In addition, even though Lessor, who is the manufacturer of the equipment, requires that all leases of its equipment include maintenance services, Lessee is able to establish observable standalone prices for the three lease components on the basis of the price other lessors lease similar equipment on a standalone basis. The standalone prices for the separate lease and nonlease components are as follows.
842-10-55-137 Lessee first allocates the consideration in the contract ($600,000) to the lease and nonlease components on a relative basis, utilizing the observable standalone prices determined in paragraph 842-10-55-136. Lessee then accounts for each separate lease component in accordance with Subtopic 842-20, treating the allocated consideration as the lease payments for each lease component. The nonlease components are accounted for by Lessee in accordance with other Topics. The allocation of the consideration to the lease and nonlease components is as follows.
> > > > Case B—Lessee Elects Practical Expedient to Not Separate Lease from Nonlease Components
842-10-55-138 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case A (paragraphs 842-10-55-132 through 55-137), except that Lessee has made an accounting policy election to use the practical expedient to not separate nonlease from lease components for its leased construction equipment. Consequently, Lessee does not separate the maintenance services from the related lease components but, instead, accounts for the contract as containing only three lease components.
842-10-55-139 Because Lessor regularly leases each piece of equipment bundled together with maintenance services on a standalone basis, there are observable standalone prices for each of the three combined components, each of which includes the lease and the maintenance services. Because each of the three separate lease components includes the lease of the equipment and the related maintenance services, the observable standalone price for each component in this scenario is greater than the observable standalone price for each separate lease component that does not include the maintenance services in Case A.
842-10-55-140 Lessee allocates the consideration in the contract ($600,000) to the three separate lease components on a relative basis utilizing the observable standalone selling price of each separate lease component (inclusive of maintenance services) and then accounts for each separate lease component in accordance with the guidance in Subtopic 842-20, treating the allocated consideration as the lease payments for each separate lease component. The standalone prices for each of the three combined lease components is as follows.
> > > Example 12—Activities or Costs That Are Not Components of a Contract
> > > > Case A—Payments for Taxes and Insurance Are Variable
842-10-55-141 Lessor and Lessee enter into a five-year lease of a building. The contract designates that Lessee is required to pay for the costs relating to the asset, including the real estate taxes and the insurance on the building. The real estate taxes would be owed by Lessor regardless of whether it leased the building and who the lessee is. Lessor is the named insured on the building insurance policy (that is, the insurance protects lessor's investment in the building, and Lessor will receive the proceeds from any claim). The annual lease payments are fixed at $10,000 per year, while the annual real estate taxes and insurance premium will vary and be billed to Lessee each year.
842-10-55-142 The real estate taxes and the building insurance are not components of the contract. The contract includes a single lease component— the right to use the building. lessee's payments of those amounts solely represent a reimbursement of lessor's costs and do not represent payments for goods or services in addition to the right to use the building. However, because the real estate taxes and insurance premiums during the lease term are variable, those payments are variable lease payments that do not depend on an index or a rate and are excluded from the measurement of the lease liability and recognized in profit or loss in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-5 or 842-20-25-6.
> > > > Case B—Payment for Taxes and Insurance Are Fixed
842-10-55-143 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case A (paragraphs 842-10-55-141 through 55-142), except that the fixed annual lease payment is $13,000. There are no additional payments for real estate taxes or building insurance; however, the fixed payment is itemized in the contract (that is, $10,000 for rent, $2,000 for real estate taxes, and $1,000 for building insurance). Consistent with Case A, the taxes and insurance are not components of the contract. The contract includes a single lease component, the right to use the building. The $65,000 in payments Lessee will make over the 5-year lease term are all lease payments for the single component of the contract and, therefore, are included in the measurement of the lease liability.
> > > > Case C—Common Area Maintenance
842-10-55-144 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case B (paragraph 842-10-55-143), except that the lease is of space within the building, rather than for the entire building, and the fixed annual lease payment of $13,000 also covers lessor's performance of common area maintenance activities (for example, cleaning of common areas, parking lot maintenance, and providing utilities to the building). Consistent with Case B, the taxes and insurance are not components of the contract. However, the common area maintenance is a component because lessor's activities transfer services to Lessee. That is, Lessee receives a service from Lessor in the form of the common area maintenance activities it would otherwise have to undertake itself or pay another party to provide (for example, cleaning the lobby for its customers, removing snow from the parking lot for its employees and customers, and providing utilities). The common area maintenance is a single component in this contract rather than multiple components, because Lessor performs the activities as needed (for example, plows snow or undertakes minor repairs when and as necessary) over the same period of time.
842-10-55-145 Therefore, the contract in Case C includes two components—a lease component (that is, the right to use the building) and a nonlease component. The consideration in the contract of $65,000 is allocated between those 2 components; the amount allocated to the lease component is the lease payments in accounting for the lease.
> > > Example 13—Lease of a Turbine Plant
842-10-55-146 Lessor leases a gas-fired turbine plant to Lessee for eight years so that Lessee can produce electricity for its customers. The plant consists of the turbine housed within a building together with the land on which the building sits. The building was designed specifically to house the turbine, has a similar economic life as the turbine of approximately 15 years, and has no alternative use. The lease does not transfer ownership of any of the underlying assets to Lessee or grant Lessee an option to purchase any of the underlying assets. Lessor does not obtain a residual value guarantee from Lessee or any other unrelated third party. The present value of the lease payments is not substantially all of the aggregate fair value of the three underlying assets.
842-10-55-147 While the lease of the plant includes the lease of multiple underlying assets, the leases of those underlying assets do not meet the second criterion necessary to be separate lease components, which is that the right to use the underlying asset is neither dependent on nor highly interrelated with the other rights of use in the contract. Therefore, the contract contains only one lease component. The rights to use the turbine, the building, and the land are highly interrelated because each is an input to the customized combined item for which Lessee has contracted (that is, the right to use a gas-fired turbine plant that can produce electricity for distribution to lessee's customers).
842-10-55-148 However, because the contract contains the lease of land, Lessee and Lessor also must consider the guidance in paragraph 842-10-15-29. Lessee and Lessor each conclude that the effect of accounting for the right to use the land as a separate lease component would be insignificant because lessee's right to use the turbine, the building, and the land is coterminous and separating the right to use the land from the right to use the turbine and the building would not affect the lease classification of the turbine/building lease component. Lessee and Lessor each conclude that a single lease component comprising the turbine, the building, and the land would be classified as an operating lease, as would two separate lease components comprising the land and the turbine/building, respectively.
842-10-55-149 The predominant asset in the single lease component is the turbine. Lessee entered into the lease primarily to obtain the power-generation capabilities of the turbine. The building and land enable Lessee to obtain the benefits from use of the turbine. The land and building would have little, if any, use or value to Lessee in this contract without the turbine. Therefore, the remaining economic life of the turbine is considered in evaluating the classification of the single lease component.
> > > Example 14—Determining the Consideration in the Contract— Variable Payments
> > > > Case A—Variable Payments That Relate to the Lease Component and the Nonlease Component
842-10-55-150 Lessee and Lessor enter into a three-year lease of equipment that includes maintenance services on the equipment throughout the three-year lease term. Lessee will pay Lessor $100,000 per year plus an additional $7,000 each year that the equipment is operating a minimum number of hours at a specified level of productivity (that is, the equipment is not malfunctioning or inoperable). The potential $7,000 payment each year is variable because the payment depends on the equipment operating a minimum number of hours at a specified level of productivity. The lease is an operating lease.
842-10-55-151 In accordance with paragraph 842-10-15-35, variable payments other than those that depend on an index or a rate are not accounted for as consideration in the contract by Lessee. Therefore, the consideration in the contract to be allocated by Lessee to the equipment lease and the maintenance services at lease commencement includes only the fixed payments of $100,000 each year (or $300,000 in total). Lessee allocates the consideration in the contract to the equipment lease and the maintenance services on the basis of the standalone prices of each, which, for purposes of this example, are $285,000 and $45,000, respectively.
Each $100,000 annual fixed payment and each variable payment are allocated to the equipment lease and the maintenance services on the same basis as the initial allocation of the consideration in the contract (that is, 86.4 percent to the equipment lease and 13.6 percent to the maintenance services). Therefore, annual lease expense, excluding variable expense, is $86,364. Lessee recognizes the expense related to the variable payments in accordance with paragraphs 842-20-25-6 and 842-20-55-1 through 55-2.
842-10-55-152 In accordance with paragraphs 842-10-15-39 through 15-40, Lessor also concludes that the potential variable payments should not be accounted for as consideration in the contract. That is because the potential variable payment each year is not solely related to performance of the nonlease maintenance services; the quality and condition of the underlying asset also substantively affect whether Lessor will earn those amounts. Therefore, Lessor's allocation of the consideration in the contract ($300,000) in this Example is the same as Lessee. Lessor, in the same manner as Lessee, also will recognize the income related to the variable payments and allocate that income between the lease and nonlease maintenance services (on the same basis as the initial allocation of the consideration in the contract), when and if earned.
> > > > Case B—Variable Payments That Relate Specifically to a Nonlease Component
842-10-55-153 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case A (paragraphs 842-10-55-150 through 55-152), except in this scenario the maintenance services are highly specialized and no entity would expect the equipment to meet the performance metrics without the specialized maintenance services.
842-10-55-154 Lessee would account for the potential variable payments consistent with Case A. The rationale for this accounting also is consistent with that in Case A.
842-10-55-155 In contrast to Case A, Lessor concludes that the variable payments relate specifically to an outcome from lessor's performance of its maintenance services. Therefore, Lessor evaluates the variable payments in accordance with the variable consideration guidance in paragraphs 606-10-32-5 through 32-13. If Lessor estimates, using the most likely amount method, that it will be entitled to receive the $21,000 in variable payments and that it is probable that including that amount in the transaction price for the maintenance services would not result in a significant revenue reversal when the uncertainty of the performance bonus is resolved, the $21,000 would be included in the consideration in the contract. Because allocating the $21,000 entirely to the maintenance services would not result in an allocation that is consistent with the allocation objective in paragraph 606-10-32-28 (that is, it would result in allocating $61,909 to the maintenance services and the remainder to the equipment lease, which would not reasonably depict the consideration to which Lessor expects to be entitled for each component), the entire consideration in the contract of $321,000 is allocated on a relative standalone price basis as follows.
842-10-55-156 The $277,227 allocated to the equipment lease is the lease payment in accounting for the lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-30. Lessor will recognize the consideration in the contract allocated to the maintenance services in accordance with the guidance on the satisfaction of performance obligations in paragraphs 606-10-25-23 through 25-37. If the consideration in the contract changes (for example, because Lessor no longer estimates that it will receive the full $21,000 in potential variable payments), Lessor will allocate the change in the transaction price on the same basis as was initially done.
> > > > Case C—Allocating Variable Payments Entirely to a Nonlease Component
842-10-55-157 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case B (paragraphs 842-10-55-153 through 55-156), except that in this scenario all of the following apply:
  1. The potential variable payments are $14,000 per year ($42,000 in total), and the annual fixed payments are $93,000 per year ($279,000 in total).
  2. While lessor's estimate of the variable payments to which it will be entitled is $42,000, Lessor concludes that it is not probable that including the full $42,000 in potential variable payments in the consideration in the contract will not result in a significant revenue reversal (that is, the entity applies the constraint on variable consideration in paragraph 606-10-32-11). Lessor concludes that only $28,000 is probable of not resulting in a significant revenue reversal. Therefore, the consideration in the contract is initially $307,000 ($279,000 + $28,000).
842-10-55-158 In contrast to Case B, Lessor concludes that allocating the variable payments entirely to the maintenance services and the fixed payments entirely to the equipment lease is consistent with the allocation objective in paragraph 606-10-32-28. This is because $42,000 (Lessor considers its estimate of the variable payments to which it expects to be entitled exclusive of the constraint on variable consideration in Topic 606 on revenue recognition) and $279,000 approximate the standalone price of the maintenance services ($45,000) and the equipment lease ($285,000), respectively. Because the variable payments are allocated entirely to the maintenance services, if the consideration in the contract changes (for example, because Lessor concludes it is now probable that it will earn the full $42,000 in variable payments), that change is allocated entirely to the maintenance services component in the contract.
> > Illustrations of Lease Modifications
842-10-55-159 Examples 15 through 22 illustrate the accounting for lease modifications.
> > > Lessee
> > > > Example 15—Modification Accounted for As a Separate Contract
842-10-55-160 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease for 10,000 square feet of office space. At the beginning of Year 6, Lessee and Lessor agree to modify the lease for the remaining 5 years to include an additional 10,000 square feet of office space in the same building. The increase in the lease payments is commensurate with the market rate at the date the modification is agreed for the additional 10,000 square feet of office space.
842-10-55-161 Lessee accounts for the modification as a new contract, separate from the original contract. This is because the modification grants Lessee an additional right of use as compared with the original contract, and the increase in the lease payments is commensurate with the standalone price of the additional right of use. Accordingly, from the effective date of the modification, Lessee would have 2 separate contracts, each of which contain a single lease component—the original, unmodified contract for 10,000 square feet of office space and the new contract for 10,000 additional square feet of office space, respectively. Lessee would not make any adjustments to the accounting for the original lease as a result of this modification.
> > > > Example 16—Modification That Increases the Lease Term
> > > > > Case A—No Change in Lease Classification
842-10-55-162 Lessee and Lessor enter into a 10-year lease for 10,000 square feet of office space in a building with a remaining economic life of 50 years. Annual payments are $100,000, paid in arrears. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at the commencement date is 6 percent. The lease is classified as an operating lease. At the beginning of Year 6, Lessee and Lessor agree to modify the lease such that the total lease term increases from 10 years to 15 years. The annual lease payments increase to $110,000 per year for the remaining 10 years after the modification. lessee's incremental borrowing rate is 7 percent at the date the modification is agreed to by the parties.
842-10-55-163 At the beginning of Year 6, lessee's lease liability and its right-of-use asset both equal $421,236 (that is, because the lease payments are made annually in arrears and because the lease payments are even throughout the lease term, the lease liability and right-of-use asset will be equal).
842-10-55-164 The modification does not grant an additional right of use to the lessee; rather, it changes (modifies) an attribute of the right to use the 10,000 square feet of office space Lessee already controls. That is, after the modification, Lessee still controls only a single right of use transferred to Lessee at the original lease commencement date.
842-10-55-165 Because the modification does not grant Lessee an additional right of use, the modification cannot be a separate contract. Therefore, at the effective date of the modification, Lessee reassesses classification of the lease (which does not change in this Example—see Case B [paragraphs 842-10-55-166 through 55-167] for a change in lease classification) and remeasures the lease liability on the basis of the 10-year remaining lease term, 10 remaining payments of $110,000, and its incremental borrowing rate at the effective date of the modification of 7 percent. Consequently, the modified lease liability equals $772,594. The increase to the lease liability of $351,358 is recorded as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset (that is, there is no income or loss effect from the modification).
> > > > > Case B—Change in Lease Classification
842-10-55-166 Assume the same facts as in Case A (paragraphs 842-10-55-162 through 55-165), except that the underlying asset is a piece of equipment with a 12-year remaining economic life at the effective date of the modification. Consequently, when the lessee reassesses classification of the lease in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-1 as of the effective date of the modification based on the modified rights and obligations of the parties, the lessee classifies the modified lease as a finance lease (that is, because the remaining lease term of 10 years is for a major part of the 12-year remaining economic life of the equipment).
842-10-55-167 Consistent with Case A, at the effective date of the modification, the lessee remeasures its lease liability based on the 10-year remaining lease term, 10 remaining payments of $110,000, and its incremental borrowing rate of 7 percent. Consequently, the modified lease liability equals $772,594. The increase to the lease liability of $351,358 is recorded as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset (that is, there is no income or loss effect from the modification). However, different from Case A, beginning on the effective date of the modification, Lessee accounts for the 10-year modified lease as a finance lease.
> > > > Example 17—Modification That Grants an Additional Right of Use
842-10-55-168 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease for 10,000 square feet of office space. The lease payments are $100,000 per year, paid in arrears. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at lease commencement is 6 percent. At the beginning of Year 6, Lessee and Lessor agree to modify the contract to include an additional 10,000 square feet of office space on a different floor of the building for the final 4 years of the original 10-year lease term for a total annual fixed payment of $150,000 for the 20,000 square feet.
842-10-55-169 The increase in the lease payments (of $50,000 per year) is at a substantial discount to the market rate at the date the modification is agreed to for leases substantially similar to that for the new 10,000 square feet of office space that cannot be attributed solely to the circumstances of the contract. Consequently, Lessee does not account for the modification as a separate contract.
842-10-55-170 Instead, Lessee accounts for the modified contract, which contains 2 separate lease components—first, the original 10,000 square feet of office space and, second, the right to use the additional 10,000 square feet of office space for 4 years that commences 1 year after the effective date of the modification. There are no nonlease components of the modified contract. The total lease payments, after the modification, are $700,000 (1 payment of $100,000 + 4 payments of $150,000).
842-10-55-171 Lessee allocates the lease payments in the modified contract to the 2 separate lease components on a relative standalone price basis, which, in this Example, results in the allocation of $388,889 to the original space lease and $311,111 to the additional space lease. The allocation is based on the remaining lease terms of each separate lease component (that is, 5 years for the original 10,000-square-foot lease and 4 years for the additional 10,000-square-foot lease). The remaining lease cost for each separate lease component is equal to the total payments, as allocated, which will be recognized on a straight-line basis over their respective lease terms. Lessee remeasures the lease liability for the original space lease as of the effective date of the modification—the lease classification of which does not change as a result of the modification—on the basis of all of the following:
  1. A remaining lease term of 5 years
  2. Annual allocated lease payments of $77,778 in Years 6 through 10 (see paragraph 842-10-55-173)
  3. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at the effective date of the modification of 7 percent.
842-10-55-172 The remeasured lease liability for the original space lease equals $318,904. Lessee recognizes the difference between the carrying amount of the modified lease liability and the carrying amount of the lease liability immediately before the modification of $102,332 ($421,236 – $318,904) as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset.
842-10-55-173 During Year 6, Lessee recognizes lease cost of $77,778. At the end of Year 6, Lessee makes its lease payment of $100,000, of which $77,778 is allocated to the lease of the original office space and $22,222 is allocated to the lease of the additional office space as a prepayment of rent. Lessee allocates the lease payment in this manner to reflect even payments for the even use of the separate lease components over their respective lease terms.
842-10-55-174 At the commencement date of the separate lease component for the additional office space, which is 1 year after the effective date of the modification, Lessee measures and recognizes the lease liability at $241,896 on the basis of all of the following:
  1. A lease term of 4 years
  2. Four allocated annual payments of $72,222 ([allocated lease payments of $311,111 − $22,222 rent prepayment] ÷ 4 years)
  3. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at the commencement date of the separate lease component for the additional office space of 7.5 percent.
842-10-55-175 At the commencement date, the right-of-use asset for the additional office space lease component is recognized and measured at $264,118 (the sum of the lease liability of $241,896 and the prepaid rent asset of $22,222).
842-10-55-176 During Years 7–10, Lessee recognizes lease cost of $77,778 each year for each separate lease component and allocates each $150,000 annual lease payment of $77,778 to the original office space lease and $72,222 to the additional office space lease.
> > > > Example 18—Modification That Decreases the Scope of a Lease
842-10-55-177 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease for 10,000 square feet of office space. The annual lease payment is initially $100,000, paid in arrears, and increases 5 percent each year during the lease term. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at lease commencement is 6 percent. Lessee does not provide a residual value guarantee. The lease does not transfer ownership of the office space to Lessee or grant Lessee an option to purchase the space. The lease is an operating lease for all of the following reasons:
  1. The lease term is 10 years, while the office building has a remaining economic life of 40 years.
  2. The fair value of the office space is estimated to be significantly in excess of the present value of the lease payments.
  3. The office space is expected to have an alternative use to Lessor at the end of the lease term.
842-10-55-178 At the beginning of Year 6, Lessee and Lessor agree to modify the original lease for the remaining 5 years to reduce the lease to only 5,000 square feet of the original space and to reduce the annual lease payment to $68,000. That amount will increase 5 percent each year thereafter of the remaining lease term.
842-10-55-179 The classification of the lease does not change as a result of the modification. It is clear based on the terms of the modified lease that it is not a finance lease because the modification reduces both the lease term and the lease payments. Lessee remeasures the lease liability for the modified lease at the effective date of the modification on the basis of all of the following:
  1. A remaining lease term of 5 years
  2. Lease payments of $68,000 in the year of modification (Year 6), increasing by 5 percent each year thereafter
  3. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at the effective date of the modification of 7 percent.
842-10-55-180 The remeasured lease liability equals $306,098.
> > > > > Case A—Remeasuring the Right-of-Use Asset Based on Change in Lease Liability
842-10-55-181 The difference between the premodification liability and the modified lease liability is $284,669 ($590,767 – $306,098). That difference is 48.2 percent ($284,669 ÷ $590,767) of the premodification lease liability. The decrease in the lease liability reflects the early termination of the right to use 5,000 square feet of space (50 percent of the original leased space), the change in the lease payments, and the change in the discount rate.
842-10-55-182 Lessee decreases the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset to reflect the partial termination of the lease based on the adjustment to the carrying amount of the lease liability, with any difference recognized in profit or loss. The premodification right-of-use asset is $514,436. Therefore, at the effective date of the modification, Lessee reduces the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset by $247,888 (48.2% × $514,436). Lessee recognizes the difference between the adjustment to the lease liability and the adjustment to the right-of-use asset ($284,669 – $247,888 = $36,781) as a gain.
> > > > > Case B—Remeasuring the Right-of-Use Asset Based on the Remaining Right of Use
842-10-55-183 Lessee determines the proportionate decrease in the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset based on the remaining right-of-use asset (that is, 5,000 square feet corresponding to 50 percent of the original right-of-use asset).
842-10-55-184 Fifty percent of the premodification right-of-use asset is $257,218 (50% x $514,436). Fifty percent of the premodification lease liability is $295,384 (50% x $590,767). Consequently, Lessee decreases the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset by $257,218 and the carrying amount of the lease liability by $295,384. At the effective date of the modification, Lessee recognizes the difference between the decrease in the lease liability and the decrease in the right-of-use asset of $38,166 ($295,384 − $257,218) as a gain.
842-10-55-185 Lessee recognizes the difference between the remaining lease liability of $295,384 and the modified lease liability of $306,098 (which equals $10,714) as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset reflecting the change in the consideration paid for the lease and the revised discount rate.
> > > > Example 19—Modification That Changes the Lease Payments Only
842-10-55-186 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease for 10,000 square feet of office space. The lease payments are $95,000 in Year 1, paid in arrears, and increase by $1,000 every year thereafter. The original discount rate for the lease is 6 percent. The lease is an operating lease. At the beginning of Year 6, Lessee and Lessor agree to modify the original lease for the remaining 5 years to reduce the lease payments by $7,000 each year (that is, the lease payments will be $93,000 in Year 6 and will continue to increase by $1,000 every year thereafter). The modification only changes the lease payments and, therefore, cannot be accounted for as a separate contract. The classification of the lease does not change as a result of the modification.
842-10-55-187 Lessee remeasures the lease liability for the modified lease on the basis of all of the following:
  1. Remaining lease term of 5 years
  2. Payments of $93,000 in Year 6, increasing by $1,000 each year for the remainder of the lease term
  3. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at the effective date of the modification of 7 percent.
842-10-55-188 The remeasured lease liability equals $388,965. Lessee recognizes the difference between the carrying amount of the modified lease liability and the lease liability immediately before the effective date of the modification of $40,206 ($429,171 premodification lease liability – $388,965 modified lease liability) as a corresponding reduction to the right-of-use asset. Therefore, the adjusted right-of-use asset equals $376,465 as of the effective date of the modification. Lessee calculates its remaining lease cost as $462,500 (the sum of the total lease payments, as adjusted for the effects of the lease modification, of $960,000 reduced by the total lease cost recognized in prior periods of $497,500), which it will recognize on a straight-line basis over the remaining lease term.
842-10-55-189 During Year 6, Lessee recognizes lease cost of $92,500 ($462,500 remaining lease cost ÷ 5 years). As of the end of Year 6, lessee's lease liability equals $323,193 (present value of the remaining lease payments, discounted at 7 percent), and its right-of-use asset equals $311,193 (the balance of the lease liability – the remaining accrued rent balance of $12,000). Lessee recognizes additional lease cost of $92,500 each year of the remaining lease term and measures its lease liability and right-of-use asset in the same manner as at the end of Year 6 each remaining year of the lease term. The following are the balances of the lease liability and the right-of-use asset at the end of Years 7 through 10 of the lease.
> > > Lessor
> > > > Example 20—Modification of an Operating Lease That Does Not Change Lease Classification
842-10-55-190 Lessor enters into a 10-year lease with Lessee for 10,000 square feet of office space. The annual lease payments are $100,000 in the first year, increasing by 5 percent each year thereafter, payable in arrears. The lease term is not for a major part of the remaining economic life of the office space (40 years), and the present value of the lease payments is not substantially all of the fair value of the office space. Furthermore, the title does not transfer to Lessee as a consequence of the lease, the lease does not contain an option for Lessee to purchase the office space, and the asset is not specialized such that it clearly has an alternative use to Lessor at the end of the lease term. Consequently, the lease is classified as an operating lease.
842-10-55-191 At the beginning of Year 6, Lessee and Lessor agree to amend the original lease for the remaining 5 years to include an additional 10,000 square feet of office space in the same building for a total annual fixed payment of $150,000. The increase in total consideration is at a discount both to the current market rate for the new 10,000 square feet of office space and in the context of that particular contract. The modified lease continues to be classified as an operating lease.
842-10-55-192 At the effective date of the modification (at the beginning of Year 6), Lessor has an accrued lease rental asset of $76,331 (rental income recognized on a straight-line basis for the first 5 years of the lease of $628,895 [$1,257,789 ÷ 10 years = $125,779 per year] less lease payments for the first 5 years of $552,564 [that is, $100,000 in Year 1, $105,000 in Year 2, $110,250 in Year 3, $115,763 in Year 4, and $121,551 in Year 5]).
842-10-55-193 Because the change in pricing of the lease is not commensurate with the standalone price for the additional right-of-use asset, Lessor does not account for the modification as a new lease, separate from the original 10-year lease. Instead, Lessor accounts for the modified lease prospectively from the effective date of the modification, recognizing the lease payments to be made under the modified lease of $750,000 ($150,000 × 5 years), net of lessor's accrued rent asset of $76,331, on a straight-line basis over the remaining 5-year lease term ($673,669 ÷ 5 years = $134,734 per year). At the end of the lease, Lessor will have recognized as lease income the $1,302,564 in lease payments it receives from Lessee during the 10-year lease term.
> > > > Example 21—Modification of an Operating Lease That Changes Lease Classification
> > > > > Case A—Operating Lease to Sales-Type Lease
842-10-55-194 Lessor enters into a four-year lease of a piece of nonspecialized equipment. The annual lease payments are $81,000 in the first year, increasing by 5 percent each year thereafter, payable in arrears. The estimated residual value of the equipment is $90,000, of which none is guaranteed. The remaining economic life of the equipment at lease commencement is seven years. The carrying amount of the equipment and its fair value are both $425,000 at the commencement date. The lease is not for a major part of the remaining economic life of the equipment, and the present value of the lease payments is not substantially all of the fair value of the equipment. Furthermore, title does not transfer to Lessee as a result of the lease, the lease does not contain an option for Lessee to purchase the underlying asset, and because the asset is nonspecialized, it is expected to have an alternative use to Lessor at the end of the lease term. Consequently, the lease is classified as an operating lease.
842-10-55-195 At the beginning of Year 3, Lessee and Lessor agree to extend the lease term by two years. That is, the modified lease is now a six-year lease, as compared with the original four-year lease. The additional two years were not an option when the original lease was negotiated. The modification alters the lessee's right to use the equipment; it does not grant Lessee an additional right of use. Therefore, Lessor does not account for the modification as a separate contract from the original four-year lease contract.
842-10-55-196 On the effective date of the modification, the fair value of the equipment is $346,250, and the remaining economic life of the equipment is 5 years. The estimated residual value of the equipment is $35,000, of which none is guaranteed. The modified lease is for a major part of the remaining economic life of the equipment at the effective date of the modification (four years out of the five-year-remaining economic life of the equipment). Consequently, the modified lease is classified as a sales-type lease.
842-10-55-197 In accounting for the modification, Lessor determines the discount rate for the modified lease (that is, the rate implicit in the modified lease) to be 7.6 percent. Lessor recognizes the net investment in the modified lease of $346,250 and derecognizes both the accrued rent and the equipment at the effective date of the modification. Lessor also recognizes, in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-15(b), selling profit of $34,169 ($320,139 lease receivable – $8,510 accrued rent balance – the $277,460 carrying amount of the equipment derecognized, net of the unguaranteed residual asset [$277,460 = $303,571 – $26,111]). After the effective date of the modification, Lessor accounts for the modified lease in the same manner as any other sales-type lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-30.
> > > > > Case B—Operating Lease to Direct Financing Lease
842-10-55-198 At the beginning of Year 3, Lessee and Lessor enter into a modification to extend the lease term by 1 year, and Lessee agrees to make lease payments of $108,000 per year for each of the remaining 3 years of the modified lease. No other terms of the contract are modified. Concurrent with the execution of the modification, Lessor obtains a residual value guarantee from an unrelated third party for $40,000. Consistent with Case A (paragraphs 842-10-55-194 through 55-197), at the effective date of the modification the fair value of the equipment is $346,250, the carrying amount of the equipment is $303,571, and lessor's accrued rent balance is $8,510. The estimated residual value at the end of the modified lease term is $80,000. The discount rate for the modified lease is 7.356 percent.
842-10-55-199 Lessor reassesses the lease classification as of the effective date of the modification and concludes that the modified lease is a direct financing lease because none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 and both criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-3(b) are met.
842-10-55-200 Therefore, at the effective date of the modification, Lessor recognizes a net investment in the modified lease of $312,081, which is the fair value of the equipment ($346,250) less the selling profit on the lease ($34,169 = $313,922 lease receivable – $8,510 accrued rent balance – the $271,243 carrying amount of the equipment derecognized, net of the unguaranteed residual asset [$271,243 = $303,571 – $32,328]), which is deferred as part of the net investment in the lease. After the effective date of the modification, Lessor accounts for the modified lease in the same manner as any other direct financing lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-30.
> > > > Example 22—Modification of a Direct Financing Lease
842-10-55-201 Lessor enters into a six-year lease of a piece of new, nonspecialized equipment with a nine-year economic life. The annual lease payments are $11,000, payable in arrears. The estimated residual value of the equipment is $21,000, of which $15,000 is guaranteed by a third-party unrelated to Lessee or Lessor. The lease does not contain an option for Lessee to purchase the equipment, and the title does not transfer to Lessee as a consequence of the lease. The fair value of the equipment at lease commencement is $65,240, which is equal to its cost (and carrying amount). Lessor incurs no initial direct costs in connection with the lease. The rate implicit in the lease is 7.5 percent such that the present value of the lease payments is $51,632 and does not amount to substantially all of the fair value of the equipment.
842-10-55-202 The Lessor concludes that the lease is not a sales-type lease because none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 are met. However, the sum of the present value of the lease payments and the present value of the residual value of the underlying asset guaranteed by the third-party guarantor is $61,352, which is substantially all of the fair value of the equipment, and collectibility of the lease payments is probable. Consequently, the lease is classified as a direct financing lease. Lessor recognizes the net investment in the lease of $65,240 (which includes the lease receivable of $61,352 and the present value of the unguaranteed residual value of $3,888 [the present value of the difference between the expected residual value of $21,000 and the guaranteed residual value of $15,000]) and derecognizes the equipment with a carrying amount of $65,240.
842-10-55-203 At the end of Year 1, Lessor receives a lease payment of $11,000 from Lessee and recognizes interest income of $4,893 ($65,240 × 7.5%). Therefore, the carrying amount of the net investment in the lease is $59,133 ($65,240 + $4,893 – $11,000).
> > > > > Case A—Direct Financing Lease to Direct Financing Lease
842-10-55-204 At the end of Year 1, the lease term is reduced by 1 year and the annual lease payment is reduced to $10,000 for the remaining 4 years of the modified lease term. The estimated residual value of the equipment at the end of the modified lease term is $33,000, of which $30,000 is guaranteed by the unrelated third party, while the fair value of the equipment is $56,000. The remaining economic life of the equipment is 8 years, and the present value of the remaining lease payments, discounted using the rate implicit in the modified lease of 8.857 percent, is $32,499. Lessor concludes that the modified lease is not a sales-type lease because none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 are met. However, the sum of the present value of the lease payments and the present value of the residual value of the underlying asset guaranteed by the third-party guarantor, discounted using the rate implicit in the modified lease of 8.857 percent, is $53,864, which is substantially all of the fair value of the equipment, and collectibility of the lease payments is probable. As such, the modified lease is classified as a direct financing lease.
842-10-55-205 In accounting for the modification in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-16(a), Lessor carries forward the balance of the net investment in the lease of $59,133 immediately before the effective date of the modification as the opening balance of the net investment in the modified lease. To retain the same net investment in the lease even while the lease payments, the lease term, and the estimated residual value have all changed, Lessor adjusts the discount rate for the lease from the rate implicit in the modified lease of 8.857 percent to 6.95 percent. This discount rate is used to calculate interest income on the net investment in the lease throughout the remaining term of the modified lease and will result, at the end of the modified lease term, in a net investment balance that equals the estimated residual value of the underlying asset of $33,000.
> > > > > Case B—Direct Financing Lease to Sales-Type Lease
842-10-55-206 At the end of Year 1, the lease term is extended for two years. The lease payments remain $11,000 annually, paid in arrears, for the remainder of the lease term. The estimated residual value is $6,500, of which none is guaranteed. The rate implicit in the modified lease is 7.58 percent. At the effective date of the modification, the remaining economic life of the equipment is 8 years, and the fair value of the equipment is $62,000. Because the modified lease term is now for the major part of the remaining economic life of the equipment, the modified lease is classified as a sales-type lease.
842-10-55-207 On the effective date of the modification, Lessor recognizes a net investment in the sales-type lease of $62,000, which is equal to the fair value of the equipment at the effective date of the modification, and derecognizes the carrying amount of the net investment in the original direct financing lease of $59,133. The difference of $2,867 is the selling profit on the modified lease. After the effective date of the modification, Lessor accounts for the sales-type lease in the same manner as any other sales-type lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-30.
> > > > > Case C—Direct Financing Lease to Operating Lease
842-10-55-208 At the end of Year 1, the lease term is reduced by 2 years, and the lease payments are reduced to $9,000 per year for the remaining 3-year lease term. The estimated residual value is revised to $33,000, of which only $13,000 is guaranteed by an unrelated third party. The fair value of the equipment at the effective date of the modification is $56,000. The modified lease does not transfer the title of the equipment to Lessee or grant Lessee an option to purchase the equipment. The modified lease is classified as an operating lease because it does not meet any of the criteria to be classified as a sales-type lease or as a direct financing lease.
842-10-55-209 Therefore, at the effective date of the modification, Lessor derecognizes the net investment in the lease, which has a carrying amount of $59,133, and recognizes the equipment at that amount. Collectibility of the lease payments is probable; therefore, Lessor will recognize the $27,000 ($9,000 × 3 years) in lease payments on a straight-line basis over the 3-year modified lease term, as well as depreciation on the rerecognized equipment.
> > Illustration of Lessee Accounting for Purchase Options
842-10-55-210 Examples 23 through 24 illustrate the evaluation of whether a lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset.
> > > Example 23—Lessee Purchase Option
842-10-55-211 Lessee enters into a 5-year lease of equipment with annual lease payments of $59,000, payable at the end of each year. There are no initial direct costs incurred by Lessee or lease incentives. At the end of Year 5, Lessee has an option to purchase the equipment for $5,000. The expected residual value of the equipment at the end of the lease is $75,000. Because the exercise price of the purchase option is significantly discounted from the expected fair value of the equipment at the time the purchase option becomes exercisable, Lessee concludes that it is reasonably certain to exercise the purchase option. The fair value of the equipment at the commencement date is $250,000, and its economic life is 7 years. The discount rate for the lease, which is lessee's incremental borrowing rate because the rate implicit in the lease is not available, is 6.5 percent.
842-10-55-212 Because the lease grants Lessee an option to purchase the underlying asset that it is reasonably certain to exercise, Lessee classifies the lease as a finance lease.
842-10-55-213 Lessee recognizes the lease liability at the commencement date at $248,834 (the present value of 5 payments of $59,000 + the present value of the $5,000 payment for the purchase option, discounted at 6.5%). Because there are no initial direct costs, lease incentives, or other payments made to Lessor at or before the commencement date, Lessee recognizes the right-of-use asset at the same amount as the lease liability.
842-10-55-214 Lessee amortizes the right-of-use asset over the seven-year expected useful life of the equipment, rather than over the lease term of five years, because Lessee is reasonably certain to exercise the option to purchase the equipment. Lessee depreciates its owned assets on a straight-line basis. Therefore, the right-of-use asset is amortized on a straight-line basis.
842-10-55-215 During the first year of the lease, Lessee recognizes interest expense on the lease liability of $16,174 (6.5% × $248,834) and amortization of the right-of-use asset of $35,548 ($248,834 ÷ 7).
842-10-55-216 At the end of Year 1, the right-of-use asset is $213,286 ($248,834 – $35,548), and the lease liability is $206,008 ($248,834 + $16,174 – $59,000).
842-10-55-217 At the end of Year 5, the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is $71,094 ($248,834 – [$35,548 × 5]), and the remaining lease liability is $5,000, which is the exercise price of the purchase option. Lessee exercises the purchase option and settles the remaining lease liability. If the right-of-use asset was not previously presented together with property, plant, and equipment, Lessee reclassifies the right-of-use asset to property, plant, and equipment and applies Topic 360 to the asset beginning on the date the purchase option is exercised.
> > > Example 24—Lessee Purchase Option
842-10-55-218 Lessee enters into a 5-year lease of specialized equipment with annual lease payments of $65,000, payable in arrears. There are no initial direct costs or lease incentives. At the end of Year 5, Lessee has an option to purchase the equipment for $90,000, which is the expected fair value of the equipment at that date. Lessor constructed the equipment specifically for the needs of Lessee. Furthermore, the specialized equipment is vital to lessee's business; without this asset, Lessee would be required to halt operations while a new asset was built or customized. As such, Lessee concludes that it is reasonably certain to exercise the purchase option because the specialized nature, specifications of the asset, and its role in lessee's operations create a significant economic incentive for Lessee to do so. The fair value of the equipment at the commencement date is $440,000, and its economic life is 10 years. lessee's incremental borrowing rate is 6.5 percent, which reflects the fixed rate at which Lessee could borrow an amount similar to that of the lease payments ([$65,000 x 5 lease payments] + the $90,000 purchase option exercise price = $415,000) in the same currency, for the same term, and with similar collateral as in the lease at the commencement date.
842-10-55-219 The lease grants Lessee an option to purchase the underlying asset that it is reasonably certain to exercise. In addition, the underlying asset is of such a specialized nature that it is expected to have no alternative use to Lessor at the end of the lease term. As such, Lessee classifies the lease as a finance lease.
842-10-55-220 Lessee recognizes the lease liability at the commencement date at $335,808 (the present value of 5 payments of $65,000 + the present value of the $90,000 payment for the purchase option to be made at the end of Year 5, discounted at 6.5%). Because there are no initial direct costs, lease incentives, or other payments made to Lessor at or before the commencement date, Lessee recognizes the right-of-use asset at the same amount as the lease liability.
842-10-55-221 Lessee amortizes the right-of-use asset over the 10-year expected useful life of the equipment rather than over the lease term of 5 years, because Lessee is reasonably certain to exercise the option to purchase the equipment. Lessee depreciates its owned assets on a straight-line basis. Therefore, the right-of-use asset is amortized on a straight-line basis.
842-10-55-222 During the first year of the lease, Lessee recognizes interest expense on the lease liability of $21,828 (6.5% × $335,808) and amortization of the right-of-use asset of $33,581 ($335,808 ÷ 10).
842-10-55-223 At the end of Year 1, the right-of-use asset is $302,227 ($335,808 – $33,581), and the lease liability is $292,636 ($335,808 + $21,828 – $65,000).
842-10-55-224 At the end of Year 5, the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is $167,903 ($335,808 – $33,581 × 5), and the remaining lease liability is $90,000, which is the amount of the purchase option. Lessee exercises the option to purchase the equipment and settles the remaining lease liability. If the right-of-use asset was not previously presented together with property, plant, and equipment, Lessee reclassifies the right-of-use asset to property, plant, and equipment and will apply Topic 360 to the equipment beginning on the date the purchase option is exercised.
> > Illustrations of Lessee Accounting for Variable Lease Payments
842-10-55-225 Example 25 illustrates how a lessee accounts for variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate and variable lease payments that are linked to performance.
> > > Example 25—Variable Lease Payments That Depend on an Index or a Rate and Variable Lease Payments Linked to Performance
> > > > Case A—Variable Lease Payments That Depend on an Index or a Rate
842-10-55-226 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease of a building with annual lease payments of $100,000, payable at the beginning of each year. The contract specifies that lease payments for each year will increase on the basis of the increase in the Consumer Price Index for the preceding 12 months. The Consumer Price Index at the commencement date is 125. This Example ignores any initial direct costs. The lease is classified as an operating lease.
842-10-55-227 The rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable. lessee's incremental borrowing rate is 8 percent, which reflects the rate at which Lessee could borrow an amount equal to the lease payment in the same currency, over a similar term, and with similar collateral as in the lease.
842-10-55-228 At the commencement date, Lessee makes the lease payment for the first year and measures the lease liability at $624,689 (the present value of 9 payments of $100,000 discounted at the rate of 8 percent). The right-of-use asset is equal to the lease liability plus the prepaid rent ($724,689).
842-10-55-229 Lessee prepares financial statements on an annual basis. Lessee determines the cost of the lease to be $1 million (the total lease payments for the lease term). The annual lease expense to be recognized is $100,000 ($1 million ÷ 10 years).
842-10-55-230 At the end of the first year of the lease, the Consumer Price Index is 128. Lessee calculates the payment for the second year, adjusted to the Consumer Price Index, to be $102,400 ($100,000 × 128 ÷ 125).
842-10-55-231 Because Lessee has not remeasured the lease liability for another reason, Lessee does not make an adjustment to the lease liability to reflect the Consumer Price Index at the end of the reporting period; that is, the lease liability continues to reflect annual lease payments of $100,000 (8 remaining annual payments of $100,000, discounted at the rate of 8 percent is $574,664). However, the Year 2 payment amount of $102,400 (the $100,000 annual fixed payment + $2,400 variable lease payment) will be recognized in profit or loss for Year 2 of the lease and classified as cash flow from operations in lessee's statement of cash flows. In its quantitative disclosures, Lessee will include $100,000 of the $102,400 in its disclosure of operating lease cost and $2,400 in its disclosure of variable lease cost.
> > > > Case B—Variable Lease Payments Linked to Performance
842-10-55-232 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease of a building with annual lease payments of $100,000, payable at the beginning of each year. The contract specifies that Lessee also is required to make variable lease payments each year of the lease, which are determined as 2 percent of lessee's sales generated from the building.
842-10-55-233 At the commencement date, Lessee measures the lease liability and right-of-use asset at the same amounts as in Case A (paragraphs 842-10-55-226 through 55-231) because the 2 percent royalty that will be paid each year to Lessor under the lease is a variable lease payment, which means that payment is not included in the measurement of the lease liability (or the right-of-use asset) at any point during the lease.
842-10-55-234 During the first year of the lease, Lessee generates sales of $1.2 million from the building and, therefore, recognizes total lease cost of $124,000 ($100,000 + [2% × $1.2 million]). In its quantitative disclosures, Lessee will include $100,000 of the $124,000 in its disclosure of operating lease cost and $24,000 in its disclosure of variable lease cost.
> > Illustration of Lessee Accounting for Termination Penalties
842-10-55-235 Example 26 illustrates how a lessee accounts for termination penalties.
> > > Example 26—Termination Penalties
842-10-55-236 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease of an asset, which it can terminate at the end of each year beginning at the end of Year 6. Lease payments are $50,000 per year during the 10-year term, payable at the beginning of each year. If Lessee terminates the lease at the end of Year 6, Lessee must pay a penalty to Lessor of $20,000. The termination penalty decreases by $5,000 in each successive year.
842-10-55-237 At the commencement date, Lessee concludes that it is not reasonably certain it will continue to use the underlying asset after Year 6, having considered both the significance of the termination penalty (in absolute terms and in relation to the remaining lease payments after the date the termination option becomes exercisable) and the other factors in paragraph 842-10-55-26.
842-10-55-238 Accordingly, Lessee determines that the lease term is six years. At the commencement date, Lessee measures the lease liability on the basis of lease payments of $50,000 for 6 years plus the penalty of $20,000 payable at the end of Year 6.
> > Illustration of Initial Direct Costs
842-10-55-239 Example 27 illustrates initial direct costs.
> > > Example 27—Initial Direct Costs
842-10-55-240 Lessee and Lessor enter into an operating lease. The following costs are incurred in connection with the lease:
842-10-55-241 Lessor capitalizes initial direct costs of $10,000, which it recognizes ratably over the lease term, consistent with its recognition of lease income. The $10,000 in broker commissions is an initial direct cost because that cost was incurred only as a direct result of obtaining the lease (that is, only as a direct result of the lease being executed). None of the other costs incurred by Lessor meet the definition of initial direct costs because they would have been incurred even if the lease had not been executed. For example, the employee salaries are paid regardless of whether the lease is obtained, and Lessor would be required to pay its attorneys for negotiating and drafting the lease even if Lessee did not execute the lease.
842-10-55-242 Lessee includes $20,000 of initial direct costs in the initial measurement of the right-of-use asset. Lessee amortizes those costs ratably over the lease term as part of its total lease cost. Throughout the lease term, any unamortized amounts from the original $20,000 are included in the measurement of the right-of-use asset. The $20,000 payment to the existing tenant is an initial direct cost because that cost is only incurred upon obtaining the lease; it would not have been owed if the lease had not been executed. None of the other costs incurred by Lessee meet the definition of initial direct costs because they would have been incurred even if the lease had not been executed (for example, the employee salaries are paid regardless of whether the lease is obtained, and Lessee would be required to pay its attorneys for negotiating and drafting the lease even if the lease was not executed).
> > Illustrations of Transition
> > > Illustration of Lessee Transition—Existing Capital Lease
842-10-55-243 Example 28 illustrates lessee accounting for the transition of existing capital leases.
> > > > Example 28—Lessee Transition—Existing Capital Lease
842-10-55-244 The effective date of the guidance in this Topic for Lessee is January 1, 20X4. Lessee enters into a 7-year lease of an asset on January 1, 20X1, with annual lease payments of $25,000 payable at the end of each year. The lease includes a residual value guarantee by Lessee of $8,190. lessee's incremental borrowing rate on the date of commencement was 6 percent. Lessee accounts for the lease as a capital lease. At lease commencement, Lessee defers initial direct costs of $2,800, which will be amortized over the lease term. On January 1, 20X2 (and before transition adjustments), Lessee has a lease liability of $128,707, a lease asset of $124,434, and unamortized initial direct costs of $2,400.
842-10-55-245 January 1, 20X2 is the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements in which Lessee first applies the guidance in this Topic. Lessee has elected the package of practical expedients in paragraph 842-10-65-1(f). As such, Lessee accounts for the lease as a finance lease, without reassessing whether the contract contains a lease or whether classification of the lease would be different in accordance with this Topic. Lessee also does not reassess whether the unamortized initial direct costs on January 1, 20X2, would have met the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic at lease commencement.
842-10-55-246 On January 1, 20X2, Lessee recognizes a lease liability at the carrying amount of the capital lease obligation on December 31, 20X1, of $128,707 and a right-of-use asset at the carrying amount of the capital lease asset of $126,834 (which includes unamortized initial direct costs of $2,400 that were included in the capital lease asset). Lessee subsequently measures the lease liability and the right-of-use asset in accordance with Subtopic 840-30 until the effective date.
842-10-55-247 Beginning on the effective date, Lessee applies the subsequent measurement guidance in Section 842-20-35, including the reassessment requirements, except for the requirement to reassess amounts probable of being owed under residual value guarantees. Such amounts will only be reassessed if there is a remeasurement of the lease liability for another reason, including as a result of a lease modification (that is, not accounted for as a separate contract).
> > > Illustration of Lessee Transition—Existing Operating Lease
842-10-55-248 Example 29 illustrates lessee accounting for the transition of existing operating leases.
> > > > Example 29—Lessee Transition—Existing Operating Lease
842-10-55-249 The effective date of the guidance in this Topic for Lessee is January 1, 20X4. Lessee enters into a five-year lease of an asset on January 1, 20X1, with annual lease payments payable at the end of each year. Lessee accounts for the lease as an operating lease. At lease commencement, Lessee defers initial direct costs of $500, which will be amortized over the lease term. On January 1, 20X2 (and before transition adjustments), Lessee has an accrued rent liability of $1,200 for the lease, reflecting rent that was previously recognized as an expense but was not yet paid as of that date. Four lease payments (1 payment of $31,000 followed by 3 payments of $33,000) and unamortized initial direct costs of $400 remain.
842-10-55-250 January 1, 20X2 is the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements in which Lessee first applies the guidance in this Topic. On January 1, 20X2, lessee's incremental borrowing rate is 6 percent. Lessee has elected the package of practical expedients in paragraph 842-10-65-1(f). As such, Lessee accounts for the lease as an operating lease, without reassessing whether the contract contains a lease or whether classification of the lease would be different in accordance with this Topic. Lessee also does not reassess whether the unamortized initial direct costs on January 1, 20X2, would have met the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic at lease commencement.
842-10-55-251 On January 1, 20X2, Lessee measures the lease liability at $112,462, which is the present value of 1 payment of $31,000 and 3 payments of $33,000 discounted using the rate of 6 percent. The right-of-use asset is equal to the lease liability before adjustment for accrued rent and unamortized initial direct costs, which were not reassessed because Lessee elected the practical expedients in paragraph 842-10-65-1(f).
842-10-55-252 On January 1, 20X2, Lessee recognizes a lease liability of $112,462 and a right-of-use asset of $111,662 ($112,462 – $1,200 + $400).
842-10-55-253 From the transition date (January 1, 20X2) on, Lessee will continue to measure and recognize the lease liability at the present value of the sum of the remaining minimum rental payments (as that term was applied under Topic 840) and the right-of-use asset in accordance with this Topic.
842-10-55-254 Beginning on the effective date of January 1, 20X4, Lessee applies the subsequent measurement guidance in Section 842-20-35, including the reassessment requirements.
Transition and Open Effective Date Information
General
> Transition Related to Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842)
842-10-65-1 The following represents the transition and effective date information related to Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases (Topic 842):
  1. A public business entity, a not-for-profit entity that has issued or is a conduit bond obligor for securities that are traded, listed, or quoted on an exchange or an over-the-counter market, and an employee benefit plan that files or furnishes financial statements with or to the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission shall apply the pending content that links to this paragraph for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, and interim periods within those fiscal years. Earlier application is permitted.
  2. All other entities shall apply the pending content that links to this paragraph for financial statements issued for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, and interim periods within fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2020. Earlier application is permitted.
  3. In the financial statements in which an entity first applies the pending content that links to this paragraph, the entity shall recognize and measure leases within the scope of the pending content that links to this paragraph that exist at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented, using the approach described in (i) through (ee).
  4. An entity shall adjust equity at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented, and the other comparative amounts disclosed for each prior period presented in the financial statements, as if the pending content that links to this paragraph had always been applied, subject to the requirements in (h) through (dd).
  5. If a lessee elects not to apply the recognition and measurement requirements in the pending content that links to this paragraph to short-term leases, the lessee shall not apply the approach described in (k) through (s) to short-term leases.
See Examples 28 through 29 (paragraphs 842-10-55-243 through 55-254) for illustrations of the transition requirements.
Practical expedients
f. An entity may elect the following practical expedients, which must be elected as a package and applied consistently by an entity to all of its leases (including those for which the entity is a lessee or a lessor), when applying the pending content that links to this paragraph to leases that commenced before the effective date:
1. An entity need not reassess whether any expired or existing contracts are or contain leases.
2. An entity need not reassess the lease classification for any expired or existing leases (that is, all existing leases that were classified as operating leases in accordance with Topic 840 will be classified as operating leases, and all existing leases that were classified as capital leases in accordance with Topic 840 will be classified as finance leases).
3. An entity need not reassess initial direct costs for any existing leases.
g. An entity also may elect a practical expedient, which must be applied consistently by an entity to all of its leases (including those for which the entity is a lessee or a lessor) to use hindsight in determining the lease term (that is, when considering lessee options to extend or terminate the lease and to purchase the underlying asset) and in assessing impairment of the entity's right-of-use assets. This practical expedient may be elected separately or in conjunction with the practical expedients in (f).
Amounts previously recognized in respect of business combinations
h. If an entity has previously recognized an asset or a liability in accordance with Topic 805 on business combinations relating to favorable or unfavorable terms of an operating lease acquired as part of a business combination, the entity shall do all of the following:
1. Derecognize that asset and liability (except for those arising from operating leases for which the entity is a lessor).
2. Adjust the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset by a corresponding amount if the entity is a lessee.
3. Make a corresponding adjustment to equity at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented if assets or liabilities arise from leases classified as sales-type leases or direct financing leases in accordance with Topic 840 for which the entity is a lessor.
Disclosure
i. An entity shall provide the transition disclosures required by Topic 250 on accounting changes and error corrections, except for the requirements in paragraph 250-10-50-1(b)(2).
j. If an entity uses one or both of the practical expedients in (f) and (g), it shall disclose that fact.
Lessees
Leases previously classified as operating leases under Topic 840
k. A lessee should initially recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease.
l. Unless, on or after the effective date, the lease is modified (and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8) or the lease liability is required to be remeasured in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-4, a lessee shall measure the lease liability at the present value of the sum of the following, using a discount rate for the lease (which, for entities that are not public business entities, can be a risk-free rate determined in accordance with paragraph 842-20-30-3) established at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease:
1. The remaining minimum rental payments (as defined under Topic 840).
2. Any amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under a residual value guarantee.
m. For each lease classified as an operating lease in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-25-2 through 25-3, a lessee shall initially measure the right-of-use asset at the initial measurement of the lease liability adjusted for both of the following:
1. The items in paragraph 842-20-35-3(b), as applicable.
2. The carrying amount of any liability recognized in accordance with Topic 420 on exit or disposal cost obligations for the lease.
n. For each lease classified as an operating lease in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-25-2 through 25-3, a lessee shall subsequently measure the right-of-use asset throughout the remaining lease term in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-3(b). If the initial measurement of the right-of-use asset in (m) is adjusted for the carrying amount of a liability recognized in accordance with Topic 420 on exit or disposal cost obligations for the lease, the lessee shall apply the recognition and subsequent measurement guidance in Sections 842-20-25 and 842-20-35, respectively, when the right-of-use asset has been impaired.
o. For each lease classified as a finance lease in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-2, a lessee shall measure the right-of-use asset as the applicable proportion of the lease liability at the commencement date, which can be imputed from the lease liability determined in accordance with (l). The applicable proportion is the remaining lease term at the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented relative to the total lease term. A lessee shall adjust the right-of-use asset recognized by the carrying amount of any prepaid or accrued lease payments and the carrying amount of any liability recognized in accordance with Topic 420 for the lease.
p. Any unamortized initial direct costs at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements or the commencement date of the lease that do not meet the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic shall be written off as an adjustment to equity at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease.
q. If a modification to the contractual terms and conditions occurs on or after the effective date, and the modification does not result in a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8, or the lessee is required to remeasure the lease liability for any reason (see paragraphs 842-20-35-4 through 35-5), the lessee shall follow the requirements in this Topic from the effective date of the modification or the remeasurement date.
Leases previously classified as capital leases under Topic 840
r. For each lease classified as a finance lease in accordance with this Topic, a lessee shall do all of the following:
1. Recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability at the carrying amount of the lease asset and the capital lease obligation in accordance with Topic 840 at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented or the commencement date of the lease.
2. Include any unamortized initial direct costs that meet the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic in the measurement of the right-of-use asset established in (r)(1).
3. Write off, as an adjustment to equity, any unamortized initial direct costs at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements or the commencement date of the lease that do not meet the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic and that are not included in the measurement of the capital lease asset under Topic 840 (unless the lessee elects the practical expedients described in (f)).
4. Subsequently measure the right-of-use asset and the lease liability in accordance with Section 840-20-35 before the effective date.
5. Apply the subsequent measurement guidance in paragraphs 842-20-35-4 through 35-5 and 842-20-35-8 after the effective date. However, when applying the pending content in paragraph 842-20-35-4, a lessee shall not remeasure the lease payments for amounts probable of being owed under residual value guarantees in accordance with paragraph 842-10-35-4(c)(3).
6. Classify the assets and liabilities held under capital leases as right-of-use assets and lease liabilities arising from finance leases for the purposes of presentation and disclosure.
s. For each lease classified as an operating lease in accordance with this Topic, a lessee shall do the following:
1. Derecognize the carrying amount of any capital lease asset and capital lease obligation in accordance with Topic 840 at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented or the commencement date of the lease. Any difference between the carrying amount of the capital lease asset and the capital lease obligation shall be accounted for in the same manner as prepaid or accrued rent.
2. Recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-3 if the lease commenced before the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements.
3. Recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability in accordance with paragraph 842-20-30-1 at the commencement date of the lease if the lease commenced after the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements.
4. Account for the operating lease in accordance with the guidance in Subtopic 842-20 after initial recognition in accordance with (r)(2) or (r)(3).
5. Write off, as an adjustment to equity, any unamortized initial direct costs at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements or the commencement date of the lease that do not meet the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic.
t. If a modification to the contractual terms and conditions occurs on or after the effective date, and the modification does not result in a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8, or the lessee is required to remeasure the lease liability in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-4, the lessee shall subsequently account for the lease in accordance with the requirements in this Topic beginning on the effective date of the modification or the remeasurement date.
Build-to-suit lease arrangements
u. A lessee shall apply a modified retrospective transition approach for leases accounted for as build-to-suit arrangements under Topic 840 that are existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements as follows:
1. If an entity has recognized assets and liabilities solely as a result of a transaction's build-to-suit designation in accordance with Topic 840, the entity should derecognize those assets and liabilities at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the date that the lessee is determined to be the accounting owner of the asset in accordance with Topic 840. Any difference should be recorded as an adjustment to equity at that date. The lessee shall apply the lessee transition requirements in (k) through (s) to the lease.
2. If the construction period of the build-to-suit lease concluded before the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the transaction qualified as a sale and leaseback transaction in accordance with Subtopic 840-40 before the date of initial application, the entity shall follow the general lessee transition requirements for the lease.
Lessors
Leases previously classified as operating leases under Topic 840
v. For each lease classified as an operating lease in accordance with this Topic, a lessor shall do all of the following:
1. Continue to recognize the carrying amount of the underlying asset and any lease assets or liabilities at the later of the date of initial application and the commencement date as the same amounts recognized by the lessor immediately before that date in accordance with Topic 840.
2. Account for previously recognized securitized receivables as secured borrowings in accordance with other Topics.
3. Write off, as an adjustment to equity, any unamortized initial direct costs at the later of the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements or the commencement date of the lease that do not meet the definition of initial direct costs in this Topic(unless the lessor elects the practical expedients described in (f)).
w. For each lease classified as a direct financing or a sales-type lease in accordance with this Topic, the objective is to account for the lease, beginning on the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease, as if it had always been accounted for as a direct financing lease or a sales-type lease in accordance with this Topic. Consequently, a lessor shall do all of the following:
1. Derecognize the carrying amount of the underlying asset at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease.
2. Recognize a net investment in the lease at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease as if the lease had been accounted for as a direct financing lease or a sales-type lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-30 since lease commencement.
3. Record any difference between the amounts in (w)(1) and (w)(2) as an adjustment to equity.
4. Account for the lease in accordance with this Topic after the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease.
Leases previously classified as direct financing or sales-type leases under Topic 840
x. For each lease classified as a direct financing lease or a sales-type lease in accordance with this Topic, do all of the following:
1. Continue to recognize a net investment in the lease at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease, at the carrying amount of the net investment at that date. This would include any unamortized initial direct costs capitalized as part of the lessor's net investment in the lease in accordance with Topic 840.
2. Before the effective date, a lessor shall account for the lease in accordance with Topic 840.
3. Beginning on the effective date, a lessor shall account for the lease in accordance with the recognition, subsequent measurement, presentation, and disclosure guidance in Subtopic 842-30.
4. Beginning on the effective date, if a lessor modifies the lease (and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8), it shall account for the modified lease in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-16 if the modified lease is classified as a direct financing lease after the modification or paragraph 842-10-25-17 if the modified lease is classified as a sales-type lease after the modification. A lessor shall not remeasure the net investment in the lease on or after the effective date unless the lease is modified (and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8).
y. For each lease classified as an operating lease in accordance with this Topic, the objective is to account for the lease, beginning on the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements and the commencement date of the lease, as if it had always been accounted for as an operating lease in accordance with this Topic. Consequently, a lessor shall do all of the following:
1. Recognize the underlying asset at what the carrying amount would have been had the lease been classified as an operating lease under Topic 840.
2. Derecognize the carrying amount of the net investment in the lease.
3. Record any difference between the amounts in (y)(1) and (y)(2) as an adjustment to equity.
4. Subsequently account for the operating lease in accordance with this Topic and the underlying asset in accordance with other Topics.
Leases previously classified as leveraged leases under Topic 840
z. For leases that were classified as leveraged leases in accordance with Topic 840, and for which the commencement date is before the effective date, a lessor shall apply the requirements in Subtopic 842-50. If a leveraged lease is modified on or after the effective date, it shall be accounted for as a new lease as of the effective date of the modification in accordance with the guidance in Subtopics 842-10 and 842-30.
1. A lessor shall apply the pending content that links to this paragraph to a leveraged lease that meets the criteria in (z) that is acquired in a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity on or after the effective date.
Sale and leaseback transactions before the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented
aa. If a previous sale and leaseback transaction was accounted for as a sale and a leaseback in accordance with Topic 840, an entity shall not reassess the transaction to determine whether the transfer of the asset would have been a sale in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3.
bb. If a previous sale and leaseback transaction was accounted for as a failed sale and leaseback transaction in accordance with Topic 840 and remains a failed sale at the effective date, the entity shall reassess whether a sale would have occurred at any point on or after the beginning of the earliest period presented in the financial statements in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3. The sale and leaseback transaction shall be accounted for on a modified retrospective basis from the date a sale is determined to have occurred, in accordance with the requirements in (cc) through (dd).
cc. An entity shall account for the leaseback in accordance with the lessee and lessor transition requirements in (k) through (y).
dd. If a previous sale and leaseback transaction was accounted for as a sale and capital leaseback in accordance with Topic 840, the transferor shall continue to recognize any deferred gain or loss that exists at the later of the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements or the date of the sale of the underlying asset as follows:
1. If the underlying asset is land only, straight line over the remaining lease term.
2. If the underlying asset is not land only and the leaseback is a finance lease, in proportion to the amortization of the right-of-use asset.
3. If the underlying asset is not land only and the leaseback is an operating lease, in proportion to the recognition in profit or loss of the total lease cost.
ee. If a previous sale and leaseback transaction was accounted for as a sale and operating leaseback in accordance with Topic 840, the transferor shall do the following:
1. Recognize any deferred gain or loss not resulting from off-market terms (that is, where the consideration for the sale of the asset is not at fair value or the lease payments are not at market rates) as a cumulative-effect adjustment at the later of the date of initial application (to equity) or the date of sale (to earnings of the comparative period presented).
2. Recognize any deferred loss resulting from the consideration for the sale of the asset not being at fair value or the lease payments not being at market rates as an adjustment to the leaseback right-of-use asset at the date of initial application.
3. Recognize any deferred gain resulting from the consideration for the sale of the asset not being at fair value or the lease payments not being at market rates as a financial liability at the date of initial application.
4. Add Subtopic 842-20, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Leases—Lessee
Overview and Background
General
842-20-05-1 This Subtopic addresses accounting by lessees for leases that have been classified as finance leases or operating leases in accordance with the requirements in Subtopic 842-10. Lessees shall follow the requirements in this Subtopic as well as those in Subtopic 842-10.
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
842-20-15-1 This Subtopic follows the same Scope and Scope Exceptions as outlined in the Overall Subtopic.
Glossary
Acquiree
The business or businesses that the acquirer obtains control of in a business combination. This term also includes a nonprofit activity or business that a notfor-profit acquirer obtains control of in an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity.
Acquirer
The entity that obtains control of the acquiree. However, in a business combination in which a variable interest entity (VIE) is acquired, the primary beneficiary of that entity always is the acquirer.
Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
A transaction or other event in which a not-for-profit acquirer obtains control of one or more nonprofit activities or businesses and initially recognizes their assets and liabilities in the acquirer’s financial statements. When applicable guidance in Topic 805 is applied by a not-for-profit entity, the term business combination has the same meaning as this term has for a for-profit entity. Likewise, a reference to business combinations in guidance that links to Topic 805 has the same meaning as a reference to acquisitions by not-for-profit entities.
Business
An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members, or participants. Additional guidance on what a business consists of is presented in paragraphs 805-10-55-4 through 55-9.
Business Combination
A transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. Transactions sometimes referred to as true mergers or mergers of equals also are business combinations.See also Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity.
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
The date on which a lessor makes an underlying asset available for use by a lessee. See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the commencement date.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Direct Financing Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 but meets the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-3(b).
Discount Rate for the Lease
For a lessee, the discount rate for the lease is the rate implicit in the lease unless that rate cannot be readily determined. In that case, the lessee is required to use its incremental borrowing rate.
For a lessor, the discount rate for the lease is the rate implicit in the lease.
Fair Value (second definition)
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Finance Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Incremental Borrowing Rate
The rate of interest that a lessee would have to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal to the lease payments in a similar economic environment.
Initial Direct Costs
Incremental costs of a lease that would not have been incurred if the lease had not been obtained.
Lease
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lease Liability
A lessee's obligation to make the lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis.
Lease Modification
A change to the terms and conditions of a contract that results in a change in the scope of or the consideration for a lease (for example, a change to the terms and conditions of the contract that adds or terminates the right to use one or more underlying assets or extends or shortens the contractual lease term).
Lease Payments
See paragraph 842-10-30-5 for what constitutes lease payments from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Lease Term
The noncancellable period for which a lessee has the right to use an underlying asset, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor.
Legal Entity
Any legal structure used to conduct activities or to hold assets. Some examples of such structures are corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, grantor trusts, and other trusts.
Lessee
An entity that enters into a contract to obtain the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lessor
An entity that enters into a contract to provide the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Market Participants
Buyers and sellers in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability that have all of the following characteristics:
  1. They are independent of each other, that is, they are not related parties, although the price in a related-party transaction may be used as an input to a fair value measurement if the reporting entity has evidence that the transaction was entered into at market terms
  2. They are knowledgeable, having a reasonable understanding about the asset or liability and the transaction using all available information, including information that might be obtained through due diligence efforts that are usual and customary
  3. They are able to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability
  4. They are willing to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability, that is, they are motivated but not forced or otherwise compelled to do so.
Monetary Liability
An obligation to pay a sum of money the amount of which is fixed or determinable without reference to future prices of specific goods and services.
Not-for-Profit Entity
An entity that possesses the following characteristics, in varying degrees, that distinguish it from a business entity:
  1. Contributions of significant amounts of resources from resource providers who do not expect commensurate or proportionate pecuniary return
  2. Operating purposes other than to provide goods or services at a profit
  3. Absence of ownership interests like those of business entities.
Entities that clearly fall outside this definition include the following:
  1. All investor-owned entities
  2. Entities that provide dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly and proportionately to their owners, members, or participants, such as mutual insurance entities, credit unions, farm and rural electric cooperatives, and employee benefit plans.
Operating Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, any lease other than a finance lease.
From the perspective of a lessor, any lease other than a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease.
Orderly Transaction
A transaction that assumes exposure to the market for a period before the measurement date to allow for marketing activities that are usual and customary for transactions involving such assets or liabilities; it is not a forced transaction (for example, a forced liquidation or distress sale).
Probable (second definition)
The future event or events are likely to occur.
Rate Implicit in the Lease
The rate of interest that, at a given date, causes the aggregate present value of (a) the lease payments and (b) the amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term to equal the sum of (1) the fair value of the underlying asset minus any related investment tax credit retained and expected to be realized by the lessor and (2) any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor.
Related Parties
Related parties include:
  1. Affiliates of the entity
  2. Entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of Section 825-10-15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity
  3. Trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management
  4. Principal owners of the entity and members of their immediate families
  5. Management of the entity and members of their immediate families
  6. Other parties with which the entity may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests
  7. Other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
Residual Value Guarantee
A guarantee made to a lessor that the value of an underlying asset returned to the lessor at the end of a lease will be at least a specified amount.
Right-of-Use Asset
An asset that represents a lessee's right to use an underlying asset for the lease term.
Sales-Type Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Short-Term Lease
A lease that, at the commencement date, has a lease term of 12 months or less and does not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise.
Sublease
A transaction in which an underlying asset is re-leased by the lessee (or intermediate lessor) to a third party (the sublessee) and the original (or head) lease between the lessor and the lessee remains in effect.
Underlying Asset
An asset that is the subject of a lease for which a right to use that asset has been conveyed to a lessee. The underlying asset could be a physically distinct portion of a single asset.
Useful Life
The period over which an asset is expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows.
Variable Interest Entity
A legal entity subject to consolidation according to the provisions of the Variable Interest Entities Subsections of Subtopic 810-10.
Variable Lease Payments
Payments made by a lessee to a lessor for the right to use an underlying asset that vary because of changes in facts or circumstances occurring after the commencement date, other than the passage of time.
Recognition
General
842-20-25-1 At the commencement date, a lessee shall recognize a right-of-use asset and a lease liability.
> Short-Term Leases
842-20-25-2 As an accounting policy, a lessee may elect not to apply the recognition requirements in this Subtopic to short-term leases. Instead, a lessee may recognize the lease payments in profit or loss on a straight-line basis over the lease term and variable lease payments in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred (consistent with paragraphs 842-20-55-1 through 55-2). The accounting policy election for short-term leases shall be made by class of underlying asset to which the right of use relates.
842-20-25-3 If the lease term or the assessment of a lessee option to purchase the underlying asset changes such that, after the change, the remaining lease term extends more than 12 months from the end of the previously determined lease term or the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise its option to purchase the underlying asset, the lease no longer meets the definition of a short-term lease and the lessee shall apply the remainder of the guidance in this Topic as if the date of the change in circumstances is the commencement date.
842-20-25-4 See Example 1 (paragraphs 842-20-55-13 through 55-16) for an illustration of the requirements on short-term leases.
> Finance Leases
842-20-25-5 After the commencement date, a lessee shall recognize in profit or loss, unless the costs are included in the carrying amount of another asset in accordance with other Topics:
  1. Amortization of the right-of-use asset and interest on the lease liability
  2. Variable lease payments not included in the lease liability in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred (see paragraphs 842-20-55-1 through 55-2)
  3. Any impairment of the right-of-use asset determined in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-9.
> Operating Leases
842-20-25-6 After the commencement date, a lessee shall recognize all of the following in profit or loss, unless the costs are included in the carrying amount of another asset in accordance with other Topics:
  1. A single lease cost, calculated so that the remaining cost of the lease (as described in paragraph 842-20-25-8) is allocated over the remaining lease term on a straight-line basis unless another systematic and rational basis is more representative of the pattern in which benefit is expected to be derived from the right to use the underlying asset (see paragraph 842-20-55-3), unless the right-of-use asset has been impaired in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-9, in which case the single lease cost is calculated in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-7
  2. Variable lease payments not included in the lease liability in the period in which the obligation for those payments is incurred 842-20-55-1 through 55-2) (see paragraphs)
  3. Any impairment of the right-of-use asset determined in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-9.
842-20-25-7 After a right-of-use asset has been impaired in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-9, the single lease cost described in paragraph 842-20-25-6(a) shall be calculated as the sum of the following:
  1. Amortization of the remaining balance of the right-of-use asset after the impairment on a straight-line basis, unless another systematic basis is more representative of the pattern in which the lessee expects to consume the remaining economic benefits from its right to use the underlying asset
  2. Accretion of the lease liability, determined for each remaining period during the lease term as the amount that produces a constant periodic discount rate on the remaining balance of the liability.
842-20-25-8 Throughout the lease term, the remaining cost of an operating lease for which the right-of-use asset has not been impaired consists of the following:
  1. The total lease payments (including those paid and those not yet paid), reflecting any adjustment to that total amount resulting from either a remeasurement in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-35-4 through 35-5 or a lease modification; plus
  2. The total initial direct costs attributable to the lease; minus
  3. The periodic lease cost recognized in prior periods.
Initial Measurement
General
842-20-30-1 At the commencement date, a lessee shall measure both of the following:
  1. The lease liability at the present value of the lease payments not yet paid, discounted using the discount rate for the lease at lease commencement (as described in paragraphs 842-20-30-2 through 30-4)
  2. The right-of-use asset as described in paragraph 842-20-30-5.
> Discount Rate for the Lease
842-20-30-2 The discount rate for the lease initially used to determine the present value of the lease payments for a lessee is calculated on the basis of information available at the commencement date.
842-20-30-3 A lessee should use the rate implicit in the lease whenever that rate is readily determinable. If the rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable, a lessee uses its incremental borrowing rate. A lessee that is not a public business entity is permitted to use a risk-free discount rate for the lease, determined using a period comparable with that of the lease term, as an accounting policy election for all leases.
842-20-30-4 See Example 2 (paragraphs 842-20-55-17 through 55-20) for an illustration of the requirements on the discount rate.
> Initial Measurement of the Right-of-Use Asset
842-20-30-5 At the commencement date, the cost of the right-of-use asset shall consist of all of the following:
  1. The amount of the initial measurement of the lease liability
  2. Any lease payments made to the lessor at or before the commencement date, minus any lease incentives received
  3. Any initial direct costs incurred by the lessee (as described in paragraphs 842-10-30-9 through 30-10).
842-20-30-6 See Example 3 (paragraphs 842-20-55-21 through 55-39) for an illustration of the requirements on lessee measurement of the lease term.
Subsequent Measurement
General
842-20-35-1 After the commencement date, for a finance lease, a lessee shall measure both of the following:
  1. The lease liability by increasing the carrying amount to reflect interest on the lease liability and reducing the carrying amount to reflect the lease payments made during the period. The lessee shall determine the interest on the lease liability in each period during the lease term as the amount that produces a constant periodic discount rate on the remaining balance of the liability, taking into consideration the reassessment requirements in paragraphs 842-10-35-1 through 35-5.
  2. The right-of-use asset at cost less any accumulated amortization and any accumulated impairment losses, taking into consideration the reassessment requirements in paragraphs 842-10-35-1 through 35-5.
842-20-35-2 A lessee shall recognize amortization of the right-of-use asset and interest on the lease liability for a finance lease in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-5.
842-20-35-3 After the commencement date, for an operating lease, a lessee shall measure both of the following:
a. The lease liability at the present value of the lease payments not yet paid discounted using the discount rate for the lease established at the commencement date (unless the rate has been updated after the commencement date in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-5, in which case that updated rate shall be used)
b. The right-of-use asset at the amount of the lease liability, adjusted for the following, unless the right-of-use asset has been previously impaired, in which case the right-of-use asset is measured in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-10 after the impairment:
1. Prepaid or accrued lease payments
2. The remaining balance of any lease incentives received, which is the amount of the gross lease incentives received net of amounts recognized previously as part of the single lease cost described in paragraph 842-20-25-6(a)
3. Unamortized initial direct costs
4. Impairment of the right-of-use asset.
> Remeasurement of the Lease Liability
842-20-35-4 After the commencement date, a lessee shall remeasure the lease liability to reflect changes to the lease payments as described in paragraphs 842-10-35-4 through 35-5. A lessee shall recognize the amount of the remeasurement of the lease liability as an adjustment to the right-of-use asset. However, if the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is reduced to zero, a lessee shall recognize any remaining amount of the remeasurement in profit or loss.
842-20-35-5 If there is a remeasurement of the lease liability in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-4, the lessee shall update the discount rate for the lease at the date of remeasurement on the basis of the remaining lease term and the remaining lease payments unless the remeasurement of the lease liability is the result of one of the following:
  1. A change in the lease term or the assessment of whether the lessee will exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset and the discount rate for the lease already reflects that the lessee has an option to extend or terminate the lease or to purchase the underlying asset.
  2. A change in amounts probable of being owed by the lessee under a residual value guarantee (see paragraph 842-10-35-4(c)(3)).
  3. A change in the lease payments resulting from the resolution of a contingency upon which some or all of the variable lease payments that will be paid over the remainder of the lease term are based (see paragraph 842-10-35-4(b)).
842-20-35-6 See Examples 3 and 4 (paragraphs 842-20-55-21 through 55-46) for an illustration of the requirements on lessee subsequent measurement.
> Amortization of the Right-of-Use Asset for a Finance Lease
842-20-35-7 A lessee shall amortize the right-of-use asset on a straight-line basis, unless another systematic basis is more representative of the pattern in which the lessee expects to consume the right-of-use asset's future economic benefits. When the lease liability is remeasured and the right-of-use asset is adjusted in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-4, amortization of the right-of-use asset shall be adjusted prospectively from the date of remeasurement.
842-20-35-8 A lessee shall amortize the right-of-use asset from the commencement date to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term. However, if the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee or the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset, the lessee shall amortize the right-ofuse asset to the end of the useful life of the underlying asset.
> Impairment of a Right-of-Use Asset
842-20-35-9 A lessee shall determine whether a right-of-use asset is impaired and shall recognize any impairment loss in accordance with Section 360-10-35 on impairment or disposal of long-lived assets.
842-20-35-10 If a right-of-use asset is impaired in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-9, after the impairment, it shall be measured at its carrying amount immediately after the impairment less any accumulated amortization. A lessee shall amortize, in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-7 (for an operating lease) or paragraph 842-20-35-7 (for a finance lease), the right-of-use asset from the date of the impairment to the earlier of the end of the useful life of the right-of-use asset or the end of the lease term.
842-20-35-11 See Example 5 (paragraphs 842-20-55-47 through 55-51) for an illustration of the requirements for impairment of a right-of-use asset.
> Amortization of Leasehold Improvements
842-20-35-12 Leasehold improvements shall be amortized over the shorter of the useful life of those leasehold improvements and the remaining lease term, unless the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee or the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset, in which case the lessee shall amortize the leasehold improvements to the end of their useful life.
842-20-35-13 Leasehold improvements acquired in a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity shall be amortized over the shorter of the useful life of the assets and the remaining lease term at the date of acquisition.
> Subleases
842-20-35-14 If the nature of a sublease is such that the original lessee is not relieved of the primary obligation under the original lease, the original lessee (as sublessor) shall continue to account for the original lease in one of the following ways:
  1. If the sublease is classified as an operating lease, the original lessee shall continue to account for the original lease as it did before commencement of the sublease. If the lease cost for the term of the sublease exceeds the anticipated sublease income for that same period, the original lessee shall treat that circumstance as an indicator that the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset associated with the original lease may not be recoverable in accordance with paragraph 360-10-35-21.
  2. If the original lease is classified as a finance lease and the sublease is classified as a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease, the original lessee shall derecognize the original right-of-use asset in accordance with paragraph 842-30-40-1 and continue to account for the original lease liability as it did before commencement of the sublease. The original lessee shall evaluate its investment in the sublease for impairment in accordance with paragraph 842-30-35-3.
  3. If the original lease is classified as an operating lease and the sublease is classified as a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease, the original lessee shall derecognize the original right-of-use asset in accordance with paragraph 842-30-40-1 and, from the sublease commencement date, account for the original lease liability in accordance with paragraphs 842-20-35-1 through 35-2. The original lessee shall evaluate its investment in the sublease for impairment in accordance with paragraph 842-30-35-3.
842-20-35-15 The original lessee (as sublessor) in a sublease shall use the rate implicit in the lease to determine the classification of the sublease and to measure the net investment in the sublease if the sublease is classified as a sales-type or a direct financing lease unless that rate cannot be readily determined. If the rate implicit in the lease cannot be readily determined, the original lessee may use the discount rate for the lease established for the original (or head) lease.
Derecognition
General
> Lease Termination
842-20-40-1 A termination of a lease before the expiration of the lease term shall be accounted for by the lessee by removing the right-of-use asset and the lease liability, with profit or loss recognized for the difference.
> > Purchase of the Underlying Asset
842-20-40-2 The termination of a lease that results from the purchase of an underlying asset by the lessee is not the type of termination of a lease contemplated by paragraph 842-20-40-1 but, rather, is an integral part of the purchase of the underlying asset. If the lessee purchases the underlying asset, any difference between the purchase price and the carrying amount of the lease liability immediately before the purchase shall be recorded by the lessee as an adjustment of the carrying amount of the asset. However, this paragraph does not apply to underlying assets acquired in a business combination, which are initially measured at fair value in accordance with paragraph 805-20-30-1.
> Subleases
842-20-40-3 If the nature of a sublease is such that the original lessee is relieved of the primary obligation under the original lease, the transaction shall be considered a termination of the original lease. Paragraph 842-20-35-14 addresses subleases in which the original lessee is not relieved of the primary obligation under the original lease. Any consideration paid or received upon termination that was not already included in the lease payments (for example, a termination payment that was not included in the lease payments based on the lease term) shall be included in the determination of profit or loss to be recognized in accordance with paragraph 842-20-40-1. If a sublease is a termination of the original lease and the original lessee is secondarily liable, the guarantee obligation shall be recognized by the lessee in accordance with paragraph 405-20-40-2.
Other Presentation Matters
General
> Statement of Financial Position
842-20-45-1 A lessee shall either present in the statement of financial position or disclose in the notes all of the following:
  1. Finance lease right-of-use assets and operating lease right-of-use assets separately from each other and from other assets
  2. Finance lease liabilities and operating lease liabilities separately from each other and from other liabilities.
Right-of-use assets and lease liabilities shall be subject to the same considerations as other nonfinancial assets and financial liabilities in classifying them as current and noncurrent in classified statements of financial position.
842-20-45-2 If a lessee does not present finance lease and operating lease rightof-use assets and lease liabilities separately in the statement of financial position, the lessee shall disclose which line items in the statement of financial position include those right-of-use assets and lease liabilities.
842-20-45-3 In the statement of financial position, a lessee is prohibited from presenting both of the following:
  1. Finance lease right-of-use assets in the same line item as operating lease right-of-use assets
  2. Finance lease liabilities in the same line item as operating lease liabilities.
> Statement of Comprehensive Income
842-20-45-4 In the statement of comprehensive income, a lessee shall present both of the following:
  1. For finance leases, the interest expense on the lease liability and amortization of the right-of-use asset are not required to be presented as separate line items and shall be presented in a manner consistent with how the entity presents other interest expense and depreciation or amortization of similar assets, respectively
  2. For operating leases, lease expense shall be included in the lessee's income from continuing operations.
> Statement of Cash Flows
842-20-45-5 In the statement of cash flows, a lessee shall classify all of the following:
  1. Repayments of the principal portion of the lease liability arising from finance leases within financing activities
  2. Interest on the lease liability arising from finance leases in accordance with the requirements relating to interest paid in Topic 230 on cash flows
  3. Payments arising from operating leases within operating activities, except to the extent that those payments represent costs to bring another asset to the condition and location necessary for its intended use, which should be classified within investing activities
  4. Variable lease payments and short-term lease payments not included in the lease liability within operating activities.
Disclosure
General
842-20-50-1 The objective of the disclosure requirements is to enable users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. To achieve that objective, a lessee shall disclose qualitative and quantitative information about all of the following:
  1. Its leases (as described in paragraphs 842-20-50-3(a) through (b) and 842-20-50-7 through 50-8)
  2. The significant judgments made in applying the requirements in this Topic to those leases (as described in paragraph 842-20-50-3(c))
  3. The amounts recognized in the financial statements relating to those leases (as described in paragraphs 842-20-50-4 and 842-20-50-6).
842-20-50-2 A lessee shall consider the level of detail necessary to satisfy the disclosure objective and how much emphasis to place on each of the various requirements. A lessee shall aggregate or disaggregate disclosures so that useful information is not obscured by including a large amount of insignificant detail or by aggregating items that have different characteristics.
842-20-50-3 A lessee shall disclose all of the following:
a. Information about the nature of its leases, including:
1. A general description of those leases.
2. The basis and terms and conditions on which variable lease payments are determined.
3. The existence and terms and conditions of options to extend or terminate the lease. A lessee should provide narrative disclosure about the options that are recognized as part of its right-of-use assets and lease liabilities and those that are not.
4. The existence and terms and conditions of residual value guarantees provided by the lessee.
5. The restrictions or covenants imposed by leases, for example, those relating to dividends or incurring additional financial obligations.
A lessee should identify the information relating to subleases included in the disclosures provided in (1) through (5), as applicable.
b. Information about leases that have not yet commenced but that create significant rights and obligations for the lessee, including the nature of any involvement with the construction or design of the underlying asset.
c. Information about significant assumptions and judgments made in applying the requirements of this Topic, which may include the following:
1. The determination of whether a contract contains a lease (as described in paragraphs 842-10-15-2 through 15-27)
2. The allocation of the consideration in a contract between lease and nonlease components (as described in paragraphs 842-10-15-28 through 15-32)
3. The determination of the discount rate for the lease (as described in paragraphs 842-20-30-2 through 30-4).
842-20-50-4 For each period presented in the financial statements, a lessee shall disclose the following amounts relating to a lessee's total lease cost, which includes both amounts recognized in profit or loss during the period and any amounts capitalized as part of the cost of another asset in accordance with other Topics, and the cash flows arising from lease transactions:
a. Finance lease cost, segregated between the amortization of the right-of-use assets and interest on the lease liabilities.
b. Operating lease cost determined in accordance with paragraphs 842-20-25-6(a) and 842-20-25-7.
c. Short-term lease cost, excluding expenses relating to leases with a lease term of one month or less, determined in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-2.
d. Variable lease cost determined in accordance with paragraphs 842-20-25-5(b) and 842-20-25-6(b).
e. Sublease income, disclosed on a gross basis, separate from the finance or operating lease expense.
f. Net gain or loss recognized from sale and leaseback transactions in accordance with paragraph 842-40-25-4.
g. Amounts segregated between those for finance and operating leases for the following items:
1. Cash paid for amounts included in the measurement of lease liabilities, segregated between operating and financing cash flows
2. Supplemental noncash information on lease liabilities arising from obtaining right-of-use assets
3. Weighted-average remaining lease term
4. Weighted-average discount rate.
842-20-50-5 See paragraphs 842-20-55-11 through 55-12 for implementation guidance on preparing the weighted-average remaining lease term and the weighted-average discount rate disclosures. See Example 6 (paragraphs 842-20-55-52 through 55-53) for an illustration of the lessee quantitative disclosure requirements in paragraph 842-20-50-4.
842-20-50-6 A lessee shall disclose a maturity analysis of its finance lease liabilities and its operating lease liabilities separately, showing the undiscounted cash flows on an annual basis for a minimum of each of the first five years and a total of the amounts for the remaining years. A lessee shall disclose a reconciliation of the undiscounted cash flows to the finance lease liabilities and operating lease liabilities recognized in the statement of financial position.
842-20-50-7 A lessee shall disclose lease transactions between related parties in accordance with paragraphs 850-10-50-1 through 50-6.
842-20-50-8 A lessee that accounts for short-term leases in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-2 shall disclose that fact. If the short-term lease expense for the period does not reasonably reflect the lessee's short-term lease commitments, a lessee shall disclose that fact and the amount of its short-term lease commitments.
842-20-50-9 A lessee that elects the practical expedient on not separating lease components from nonlease components in paragraph 842-10-15-37 shall disclose its accounting policy election and which class or classes of underlying assets it has elected to apply the practical expedient.
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
General
> Implementation Guidance
> > Recognition of Costs from Variable Lease Payments
842-20-55-1 A lessee should recognize costs from variable lease payments (in annual periods as well as in interim periods) before the achievement of the specified target that triggers the variable lease payments, provided the achievement of that target is considered probable.
842-20-55-2 Variable lease costs recognized in accordance with paragraph 842-20-55-1 should be reversed at such time that it is probable that the specified target will not be met.
> > Pattern of Benefit from Use of the Underlying Asset
842-20-55-3 This Subtopic considers the right to control the use of the underlying asset as the equivalent of physical use. If the lessee controls the use of the underlying asset, recognition of lease cost in accordance with paragraph 842-20-25-6(a) or amortization of the right-of-use asset in accordance with paragraph 842-20-35-7 should not be affected by the extent to which the lessee uses the underlying asset.
> > Maintenance Deposits
842-20-55-4 Under certain leases (for example, certain equipment leases), a lessee is legally or contractually responsible for repair and maintenance of the underlying asset throughout the lease term. Additionally, certain lease agreements include provisions requiring the lessee to make deposits to the lessor to financially protect the lessor in the event the lessee does not properly maintain the underlying asset. Lease agreements often refer to these deposits as maintenance reserves or supplemental rent. However, the lessor is required to reimburse the deposits to the lessee on the completion of maintenance activities that the lessee is contractually required to perform under the lease agreement.
842-20-55-5 Under a typical arrangement, maintenance deposits are calculated on the basis of a performance measure, such as hours of use of the underlying asset, and are contractually required under the terms of the lease agreement to be used to reimburse the lessee for required maintenance of the underlying asset on the completion of that maintenance. The lessor is contractually required to reimburse the lessee for the maintenance costs paid by the lessee, to the extent of the amounts on deposit.
842-20-55-6 In some cases, the total cost of cumulative maintenance events over the term of the lease is less than the cumulative deposits, which results in excess amounts on deposit at the expiration of the lease. In those cases, some lease agreements provide that the lessor is entitled to retain such excess amounts, whereas other agreements specifically provide that, at the expiration of the lease agreement, such excess amounts are returned to the lessee (refundable maintenance deposit).
842-20-55-7 The guidance in paragraphs 842-20-55-8 through 55-9 does not apply to payments to a lessor that are not substantively and contractually related to maintenance of the leased asset. If at the commencement date a lessee determines that it is less than probable that the total amount of payments will be returned to the lessee as a reimbursement for maintenance activities, the lessee should consider that when determining the portion of each payment that is not addressed by the guidance in paragraphs 842-20-55-8 through 55-9.
842-20-55-8 Maintenance deposits paid by a lessee under an arrangement accounted for as a lease that are refunded only if the lessee performs specified maintenance activities should be accounted for as a deposit asset.
842-20-55-9 A lessee should evaluate whether it is probable that an amount on deposit recognized under paragraph 842-20-55-8 will be returned to reimburse the costs of the maintenance activities incurred by the lessee. When an amount on deposit is less than probable of being returned, it should be recognized in the same manner as variable lease expense. When the underlying maintenance is performed, the maintenance costs should be expensed or capitalized in accordance with the lessee's maintenance accounting policy.
> > Leases Denominated in a Foreign Currency
842-20-55-10 The right-of-use asset is a nonmonetary asset while the lease liability is a monetary liability. Therefore, in accordance with Subtopic 830-10 on foreign currency matters, when accounting for a lease that is denominated in a foreign currency, if remeasurement into the lessee's functional currency is required, the lease liability is remeasured using the current exchange rate, while the right-of-use asset is remeasured using the exchange rate as of the commencement date.
> > Weighted-Average Remaining Lease Term and Weighted-Average Discount Rate Disclosures
842-20-55-11 The lessee should calculate the weighted-average remaining lease term on the basis of the remaining lease term and the lease liability balance for each lease as of the reporting date.
842-20-55-12 The lessee should calculate the weighted-average discount rate on the basis of both of the following:
  1. The discount rate for the lease that was used to calculate the lease liability balance for each lease as of the reporting date
  2. The remaining balance of the lease payments for each lease as of the reporting date.
> Illustrations
> > Illustration of a Short-Term Lease
842-20-55-13 Example 1 illustrates the assessment of whether a lease is a shortterm lease.
> > > Example 1—Short-Term Lease
842-20-55-14 Lessee has made an accounting policy election not to recognize right-of-use assets and lease liabilities that arise from short-term leases for any class of underlying asset.
842-20-55-15 Lessee enters into a 12-month lease of a vehicle, with an option to extend for another 12 months. Lessee has considered all relevant factors and determined that it is not reasonably certain to exercise the option to extend. Because at lease commencement Lessee is not reasonably certain to exercise the option to extend, the lease term is 12 months.
842-20-55-16 The lease meets the definition of a short-term lease because the lease term is 12 months or less. Consequently, consistent with lessee's accounting policy election, Lessee does not recognize the right-of-use asset and the lease liability arising from this lease.
> > Illustration of Discount Rate
842-20-55-17 Example 2 illustrates the determination of the discount rate for the lease.
> > > Example 2—Portfolio Approach to Establishing the Discount Rate for the Lease
842-20-55-18 Lessee, a public entity, is the parent of several consolidated subsidiaries. During the current period, 2 subsidiaries entered into a total of 400 individual leases of large computer servers, each with terms ranging between 4 and 5 years and annual payments ranging between $60,000 and $100,000, depending on the hardware capacity of the servers. In aggregate, total lease payments for these leases amount to $30 million.
842-20-55-19 The individual lease contracts do not provide information about the rate implicit in the lease. Lessee is BBB credit rated and actively raises debt in the corporate bond market. Both subsidiaries are unrated and do not actively engage in treasury operations in their respective markets. On the basis of its credit rating and the collateral represented by the leased servers, lessee's incremental borrowing rate on $60,000 through $100,000 (the range of lease payments on each of the 400 leases) would be approximately 4 percent. Lessee notes that 5-year zero-coupon U.S. Treasury instruments are currently yielding 1.7 percent (a risk-free rate). Because Lessee conducts its treasury operations centrally (that is, at the consolidated group level), it is reasonably assumed that consideration of the group credit standing factored into how each lease was priced.
842-20-55-20 Lessee may determine the discount rate for the lease for the 400 individual leases entered into on different dates throughout the current period by using a portfolio approach. That is, Lessee can apply a single discount rate to the portfolio of new leases. This is because during the period, the new leases are all of similar terms (four to five years), and lessee's credit rating and the interest rate environment are stable. Because the pricing of the lease is influenced by the credit standing and profile of Lessee rather than the subsidiaries (that is, because Lessee conducts treasury operations for the consolidated group), Lessee concludes that its incremental borrowing rate of 4 percent is an appropriate discount rate for each of the 400 leases entered into by lessee's 2 subsidiaries during the period. Because Lessee is a public entity, it is not permitted to use a risk-free discount rate.
> > Illustrations of Lessee Recognition, Measurement, and Reassessment of the Lease Term
842-20-55-21 Example 3 illustrates how a lessee would initially and subsequently measure right-of-use assets and lease liabilities and how a lessee would account for a change in the lease term.
> > > Example 3—Initial and Subsequent Measurement by a Lessee and Accounting for a Change in the Lease Term
> > > > Case A—Initial and Subsequent Measurement of the Right-of-Use Asset and the Lease Liability
842-20-55-22 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease of an asset, with an option to extend for an additional 5 years. Lease payments are $50,000 per year during the initial term and $55,000 per year during the optional period, all payable at the beginning of each year. Lessee incurs initial direct costs of $15,000.
842-20-55-23 At the commencement date, Lessee concludes that it is not reasonably certain to exercise the option to extend the lease and, therefore, determines the lease term to be 10 years.
842-20-55-24 The rate implicit in the lease is not readily determinable. lessee's incremental borrowing rate is 5.87 percent, which reflects the fixed rate at which Lessee could borrow a similar amount in the same currency, for the same term, and with similar collateral as in the lease at the commencement date.
842-20-55-25 At the commencement date, Lessee makes the lease payment for the first year, incurs initial direct costs, and measures the lease liability at the present value of the remaining 9 payments of $50,000, discounted at the rate of 5.87 percent, which is $342,017. Lessee also measures a right-of-use asset of $407,017 (the initial measurement of the lease liability plus the initial direct costs and the lease payment for the first year).
842-20-55-26 During the first year of the lease, Lessee recognizes lease expense depending on how the lease is classified. Paragraphs 842-20-55-27 through 55-30 illustrate the lease expense depending on whether the lease is classified as a finance lease or as an operating lease.
> > > > > If the Lease Is Classified as a Finance Lease
842-20-55-27 Lessee depreciates its owned assets on a straight-line basis. Therefore, the right-of-use asset would be amortized on a straight-line basis over the 10-year lease term. The lease liability is increased to reflect the Year 1 interest on the lease liability in accordance with the interest method. As such, in Year 1 of the lease, Lessee recognizes the amortization expense of $40,702 ($407,017 ÷ 10) and the interest expense of $20,076 (5.87% × $342,017).
842-20-55-28 At the end of the first year of the lease, the carrying amount of lessee's lease liability is $362,093 ($342,017 + $20,076), and the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is $366,315 ($407,017 – $40,702).
> > > > > If the Lease Is Classified as an Operating Lease
842-20-55-29 Lessee determines the cost of the lease to be $515,000 (sum of the lease payments for the lease term and initial direct costs incurred by Lessee). The annual lease expense to be recognized is therefore $51,500 ($515,000 ÷ 10 years).
842-20-55-30 At the end of the first year of the lease, the carrying amount of lessee's lease liability is $362,093 ($342,017 + $20,076), and the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is $375,593 (the carrying amount of the lease liability plus the remaining initial direct costs, which equal $13,500).
> > > > Case B—Accounting for a Change in the Lease Term
842-20-55-31 At the end of Year 6 of the lease, Lessee makes significant leasehold improvements. Those improvements are expected to have significant economic value for Lessee at the end of the original lease term of 10 years. The improvements result in the underlying asset having greater utility to Lessee than alternative assets that could be leased for a similar amount and that are expected to have significant economic life beyond the original lease term. Consequently, construction of the leasehold improvements is deemed a significant event or significant change in circumstances that directly affects whether Lessee is reasonably certain to exercise the option to extend the lease and triggers a reassessment of the lease term. Upon reassessing the lease term, at the end of Year 6, Lessee concludes that it is reasonably certain to exercise the option to extend the lease for five years. Taking into consideration the extended remaining lease term, lessee's incremental borrowing rate at the end of Year 6 is 7.83 percent. As a result of lessee's remeasuring the remaining lease term to nine years, Lessee also would remeasure any variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate; however, in this Example, there are no variable lease payments that depend on an index or a rate. In accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-1, Lessee reassesses the lease classification as a result of the change in the lease term. Assume for purposes of this Example that the reassessment does not change the classification of the lease from that determined at the commencement date.
842-20-55-32 At the end of Year 6, before accounting for the change in the lease term, the lease liability is $183,973 (present value of 4 remaining payments of $50,000, discounted at the rate of 5.87 percent). lessee's right-of-use asset is $162,807 if the lease is classified as a finance lease or $189,973 if the lease is classified as an operating lease (the balance of the remeasured lease liability at the end of Year 6 plus the remaining initial direct costs of $6,000).
842-20-55-33 Lessee remeasures the lease liability, which is now equal to the present value of 4 payments of $50,000 followed by 5 payments of $55,000, all discounted at the rate of 7.83 percent, which is $355,189. Lessee increases the lease liability by $171,216, representing the difference between the remeasured liability and its current carrying amount ($355,189 – $183,973). The corresponding adjustment is made to the right-of-use asset to reflect the cost of the additional rights.
842-20-55-34 Following the adjustment, the carrying amount of lessee's right-of-use asset is $334,023 if the lease is a finance lease (that is, $162,807 + $171,216) or $361,189 if the lease is an operating lease (that is, $189,973 + $171,216).
842-20-55-35 Lessee then makes the $50,000 lease payment for Year 7, reducing the lease liability to $305,189 ($355,189 – $50,000), regardless of how the lease is classified.
842-20-55-36 Lessee recognizes lease expense in Year 7 as follows, depending on how the lease had been classified at the commencement date.
> > > > > If the Lease Is Classified as a Finance Lease at the Commencement Date
842-20-55-37 Lessee depreciates its owned assets on a straight-line basis. Therefore, the right-of-use asset will be amortized on a straight-line basis over the lease term. The lease liability will be reduced in accordance with the interest method. As such, in Year 7 (the first year following the remeasurement), Lessee recognizes amortization expense of $37,114 ($334,023 ÷ 9) and interest expense of $23,896 (7.83% × $305,189).
> > > > > If the Lease Is Classified as an Operating Lease at the Commencement Date
842-20-55-38 Lessee determines the remaining cost of the lease as the sum of the following:
  1. The total lease payments, as adjusted for the remeasurement, which is the sum of $500,000 (10 payments of $50,000 during the initial lease term) and $275,000 (5 payments of $55,000 during the term of the lease extension); plus
  2. The total initial direct costs attributable to the lease of $15,000; minus
  3. The periodic lease cost recognized in prior periods of $309,000.
842-20-55-39 The amount of the remaining cost of the lease is therefore $481,000 ($775,000 + $15,000 – $309,000). Consequently, Lessee determines that the annual expense to be recognized throughout the remainder of the lease term is $53,444 ($481,000 ÷ the remaining lease term of 9 years).
> > Illustrations of Lessee Recognition and Measurement in an Operating Lease
842-20-55-40 Example 4 illustrates how a lessee would recognize lease cost in an operating lease and initially and subsequently measure right-of-use assets and lease liabilities for that lease.
> > > Example 4—Recognition and Initial and Subsequent Measurement by a Lessee in an Operating Lease
842-20-55-41 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease for 5,000 square feet of office space. The annual lease payment is $10,000, paid in arrears, and increases 5 percent each year during the lease term. lessee's incremental borrowing rate at lease commencement is 6 percent. Lessee classifies the lease as an operating lease in accordance with paragraphs 842-10-25-2 through 25-3. Lessee incurs initial direct costs of $5,000.
842-20-55-42 At the commencement date, Lessee receives a $10,000 cash payment from Lessor that Lessee accounts for as a lease incentive. Lessee measures the lease liability at the present value of the 10 remaining lease payments ($10,000 in Year 1, increasing by 5 percent each year thereafter), discounted at the rate of 6 percent, which is $90,434. Lessee also measures a right-of-use asset of $85,434 (the initial measurement of the lease liability + the initial direct costs of $5,000 – the lease incentive of $10,000).
842-20-55-43 During the first year of the lease, Lessee determines the remaining cost of the lease as the sum of the following:
  1. The total lease payments of $115,779 (the sum of the 10 escalating payments to Lessor during the lease term of $125,779 − the lease incentive paid to Lessee at the commencement date of $10,000)
  2. The total initial direct costs attributable to the lease of $5,000.
The amount of the remaining lease cost is therefore $120,779 ($115,779 + $5,000). Consequently, Lessee determines that the single lease cost to be recognized every year throughout the lease term is $12,078 ($120,779 ÷ 10 years). This assumes that there are no remeasurements of the lease liability or modifications to the lease throughout the lease term.
842-20-55-44 At the end of Year 1, the carrying amount of the lease liability is $85,860 (9 remaining lease payments, discounted at the rate of 6 percent), and the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is the amount of the liability, adjusted for the following:
  1. Accrued lease payments of $2,578 (the amount of payments to Lessor to be recognized as part of the single lease cost each year during the lease of $12,578 [total payments to Lessor of $125,779 ÷ 10 years] − the first year's lease payment of $10,000)
  2. Unamortized initial direct costs of $4,500 (gross initial direct costs of $5,000 – amounts recognized previously as part of the single lease cost of $500 [total initial direct costs of $5,000 ÷ 10 years])
  3. The remaining balance of the lease incentive of $9,000 (gross lease incentive of $10,000 – amounts recognized previously as part of the single lease cost of $1,000 [total lease incentives of $10,000 ÷ 10 years]).
Therefore, at the end of Year 1, Lessee measures the right-of-use asset at the amount of $78,782 ($85,860 – $2,578 + $4,500 – $9,000).
842-20-55-45 At the beginning of Year 2, Lessee determines the remaining cost of the lease to be $108,701 (the total lease payments of $115,779 + the total initial direct costs of $5,000 – the single lease cost recognized in Year 1 of $12,078). The single lease cost to be recognized in Year 2 is still $12,078 ($108,701 ÷ 9 years). For the purposes of the Example, only the first two years' determination of the single lease cost are shown. However, the single lease cost will be determined in the same way as in Years 1 and 2 for the remainder of the lease and, in this Example, will continue to equal $12,078 every period for the remainder of the lease term assuming that there are no remeasurements of the lease liability or modifications to the lease.
842-20-55-46 At the end of Year 2, the carrying amount of the lease liability is $80,511, and the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is $71,855 (the carrying amount of the lease liability of $80,511 – the accrued lease payments of $4,656 + the unamortized initial direct costs of $4,000 – the remaining balance of the lease incentive received of $8,000). For the purposes of the Example, the subsequent measurement of the lease liability and the subsequent measurement of the right-of-use asset are shown only for the first two years. However, Lessee will continue to measure the lease liability and the right-of-use asset for this lease in the same manner throughout the remainder of the lease term.
> > Illustration of Impairment of a Right-of-Use Asset
842-20-55-47 Example 5 illustrates impairment of a right-of-use asset.
> > > Example 5—Impairment of a Right-of-Use Asset in an Operating Lease
842-20-55-48 Lessee enters into a 10-year lease of a nonspecialized asset. Lease payments are $10,000 per year, payable in arrears. The lease does not transfer ownership of the underlying asset or grant Lessee an option to purchase the underlying asset. At lease commencement, the remaining economic life of the underlying asset is 50 years, and the fair value of the underlying asset is $600,000. Lessee does not incur any initial direct costs as a result of the lease. lessee's incremental borrowing rate is 7 percent, which reflects the fixed rate at which Lessee could borrow the amount of the lease payments in the same currency, for the same term, and with similar collateral as in the lease at commencement. The lease is classified as an operating lease.
842-20-55-49 At the commencement date, Lessee recognizes the lease liability of $70,236 (the present value of the 10 lease payments of $10,000, discounted at the rate of 7 percent). Lessee also recognizes a right-of-use asset of $70,236 (the initial measurement of the lease liability). Lessee determines the cost of the lease to be $100,000 (the total lease payments for the lease term). The annual lease expense to be recognized is therefore $10,000 ($100,000 ÷ 10 years).
842-20-55-50 At the end of Year 3, when the carrying amount of the lease liability and the right-of-use asset are both $53,893, Lessee determines that the right-ofuse asset is impaired in accordance with Section 360-10-35 and recognizes an impairment loss of $35,000. The right-of-use asset is part of an asset group that Lessee tested for recoverability because of a significant adverse change in the business climate that affects lessee's ability to derive benefit from the assets within the asset group. The portion of the total impairment loss for the asset group allocated to the right-of-use asset in accordance with paragraph 360-10-35-28 is $35,000. After the impairment charge, the carrying amount of the right-of-use asset at the end of Year 3 is $18,893 ($53,893 – $35,000). Because of the impairment, the total expense recognized in Year 3 is $45,000 ($10,000 in lease expense + the $35,000 impairment charge). Beginning in Year 4, and for the remainder of the lease term, the single lease cost recognized by Lessee in accordance with paragraphs 842-20-25-6(a) and 842-20-25-7 will equal the sum of the following:
  1. Amortization of the right-of-use asset remaining after the impairment ($18,893 ÷ 7 years = $2,699 per year)
  2. Accretion of the lease liability. For example, in Year 4, the accretion is $3,773 ($53,893 × 7%) and, in Year 5, the accretion is $3,337 ($47,665 × 7%).
842-20-55-51 Consequently, at the end of Year 4, the carrying amount of the lease liability is $47,665 (that is, calculated as either the present value of the remaining lease payments, discounted at 7 percent, or the previous balance of $53,893 – $10,000 Year 4 lease payment + the $3,773 accretion of the lease liability). The carrying amount of the right-of-use asset is $16,194 (the previous balance of $18,893 – $2,699 amortization). Lessee measures the lease liability and the right-of-use asset in this manner throughout the remainder of the lease term.
> > Illustration of Lessee Quantitative Disclosure Requirements
842-20-55-52 Example 6 illustrates how a lessee may meet the quantitative disclosure requirements in paragraph 842-20-50-4.
> > > Example 6—Lessee Quantitative Disclosure Requirements in Paragraph 842-20-50-4
842-20-55-53 The following Example illustrates how a lessee may meet the quantitative disclosure requirements in paragraph 842-20-50-4.
5. Add Subtopic 842-30, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Leases—Lessor
Overview and Background
General
842-30-05-1 This Subtopic addresses accounting by lessors for leases that have been classified as sales-type leases, direct financing leases, or operating leases in accordance with the requirements in Subtopic 842-10. Lessors should follow the requirements in this Subtopic as well as those in Subtopic 842-10.
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
842-30-15-1 This Subtopic follows the same Scope and Scope Exceptions as outlined in the Overall Subtopic; see Section 842-10-15.
Glossary
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
The date on which a lessor makes an underlying asset available for use by a lessee. See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the commencement date.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Direct Financing Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 but meets the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-3(b).
Fair Value (second definition)
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Finance Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Initial Direct Costs
Incremental costs of a lease that would not have been incurred if the lease had not been obtained.
Lease
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lease Payments
See paragraph 842-10-30-5 for what constitutes lease payments from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Lease Receivable
A lessor's right to receive lease payments arising from a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease plus any amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term to the extent that it is guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, measured on a discounted basis.
Lease Term
The noncancellable period for which a lessee has the right to use an underlying asset, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor.
Lessee
An entity that enters into a contract to obtain the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lessor
An entity that enters into a contract to provide the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Market Participants
Buyers and sellers in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability that have all of the following characteristics:
  1. They are independent of each other, that is, they are not related parties, although the price in a related-party transaction may be used as an input to a fair value measurement if the reporting entity has evidence that the transaction was entered into at market terms
  2. They are knowledgeable, having a reasonable understanding about the asset or liability and the transaction using all available information, including information that might be obtained through due diligence efforts that are usual and customary
  3. They are able to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability
  4. They are willing to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability, that is, they are motivated but not forced or otherwise compelled to do so.
Net Investment in the Lease
For a sales-type lease, the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset.
For a direct financing lease, the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset, net of any deferred selling profit.
Operating Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, any lease other than a finance lease.
From the perspective of a lessor, any lease other than a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease.
Orderly Transaction
A transaction that assumes exposure to the market for a period before the measurement date to allow for marketing activities that are usual and customary for transactions involving such assets or liabilities; it is not a forced transaction (for example, a forced liquidation or distress sale).
Probable (second definition)
The future event or events are likely to occur.
Rate Implicit in the Lease
The rate of interest that, at a given date, causes the aggregate present value of (a) the lease payments and (b) the amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term to equal the sum of (1) the fair value of the underlying asset minus any related investment tax credit retained and expected to be realized by the lessor and (2) any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor.
Related Parties
Related parties include:
  1. Affiliates of the entity
  2. Entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of Section 825-10-15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity
  3. Trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management
  4. Principal owners of the entity and members of their immediate families
  5. Management of the entity and members of their immediate families
  6. Other parties with which the entity may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests
  7. Other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
Residual Value Guarantee
A guarantee made to a lessor that the value of an underlying asset returned to the lessor at the end of a lease will be at least a specified amount.
Sales-Type Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Selling Profit or Selling Loss
At the commencement date, selling profit or selling loss equals:
  1. The fair value of the underlying asset or the sum of (1) the lease receivable and (2) any lease payments prepaid by the lessee, if lower; minus
  2. The carrying amount of the underlying asset net of any unguaranteed residual asset; minus
  3. Any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor.
Sublease
A transaction in which an underlying asset is re-leased by the lessee (or intermediate lessor) to a third party (the sublessee) and the original (or head) lease between the lessor and the lessee remains in effect.
Underlying Asset
An asset that is the subject of a lease for which a right to use that asset has been conveyed to a lessee. The underlying asset could be a physically distinct portion of a single asset.
Unguaranteed Residual Asset
The amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term that is not guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, measured on a discounted basis.
Useful Life
The period over which an asset is expected to contribute directly or indirectly to future cash flows.
Variable Lease Payments
Payments made by a lessee to a lessor for the right to use an underlying asset that vary because of changes in facts or circumstances occurring after the commencement date, other than the passage of time.
Recognition
General
> Sales-Type Leases
842-30-25-1 At the commencement date, a lessor shall recognize each of the following and derecognize the underlying asset in accordance with paragraph 842-30-40-1:
  1. A net investment in the lease, measured in accordance with paragraph 842-30-30-1
  2. Selling profit or selling loss arising from the lease
  3. Initial direct costs as an expense if, at the commencement date, the fair value of the underlying asset is different from its carrying amount. If the fair value of the underlying asset equals its carrying amount, initial direct costs (see paragraphs 842-10-30-9 through 30-10) are deferred at the commencement date and included in the measurement of the net investment in the lease. The rate implicit in the lease is defined in such a way that those initial direct costs eligible for deferral are included automatically in the net investment in the lease; there is no need to add them separately.
842-30-25-2 After the commencement date, a lessor shall recognize all of the following:
  1. Interest income on the net investment in the lease, measured in accordance with paragraph 842-30-35-1(a)
  2. Variable lease payments that are not included in the net investment in the lease as income in profit or loss in the period when the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur
  3. Impairment of the net investment in the lease (as described in paragraph 842-30-35-3).
842-30-25-3 The guidance in paragraphs 842-30-25-1 through 25-2 notwithstanding, if collectibility of the lease payments, plus any amount necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee provided by the lessee, is not probable at the commencement date, the lessor shall not derecognize the underlying asset but shall recognize lease payments received—including variable lease payments—as a deposit liability until the earlier of either of the following:
a. Collectibility of the lease payments, plus any amount necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee provided by the lessee, becomes probable. If collectibility is not probable at the commencement date, a lessor shall continue to assess collectibility to determine whether the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee are probable of collection.
b. Either of the following events occurs:
1. The contract has been terminated, and the lease payments received from the lessee are nonrefundable.
2. The lessor has repossessed the underlying asset, it has no further obligation under the contract to the lessee, and the lease payments received from the lessee are nonrefundable.
842-30-25-4 When collectibility is not probable at the commencement date, at the date the criterion in paragraph 842-30-25-3(a) is met (that is, the date at which collectibility of the lease payments plus any amount necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee provided by the lessee is assessed as probable), the lessor shall do all of the following:
a. Derecognize the carrying amount of the underlying asset
b. Derecognize the carrying amount of any deposit liability recognized in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-3
c. Recognize a net investment in the lease on the basis of the remaining lease payments and remaining lease term, using the rate implicit in the lease determined at the commencement date
d. Recognize selling profit or selling loss calculated as:
1. The lease receivable; plus
2. The carrying amount of the deposit liability; minus
3. The carrying amount of the underlying asset, net of the unguaranteed residual asset.
842-30-25-5 When collectibility is not probable at the commencement date, at the date the criterion in paragraph 842-30-25-3(b) is met, the lessor shall derecognize the carrying amount of any deposit liability recognized in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-3, with the corresponding amount recognized as lease income.
842-30-25-6 If collectibility is probable at the commencement date for a sales-type lease or for a direct financing lease, a lessor shall not reassess whether collectibility is probable. Subsequent changes in the credit risk of the lessee shall be accounted for in accordance with the impairment guidance applicable to the net investment in the lease in paragraph 842-30-35-3.
> Direct Financing Leases
842-30-25-7 At the commencement date, a lessor shall recognize both of the following and derecognize the underlying asset in accordance with paragraph 842-30-40-1:
  1. A net investment in the lease, measured in accordance with paragraph 842-30-30-2
  2. Selling loss arising from the lease, if applicable.
842-30-25-8 Selling profit and initial direct costs (see paragraphs 842-10-30-9 through 30-10) are deferred at the commencement date and included in the measurement of the net investment in the lease. The rate implicit in the lease is defined in such a way that initial direct costs deferred in accordance with this paragraph are included automatically in the net investment in the lease; there is no need to add them separately.
842-30-25-9 After the commencement date, a lessor shall recognize all of the following:
  1. Interest income on the net investment in the lease, measured in accordance with paragraph 842-30-35-1(a)
  2. Variable lease payments that are not included in the net investment in the lease as income in profit or loss in the period when the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur
  3. Impairment of the net investment in the lease (as described in paragraph 842-30-35-3).
> Operating Leases
842-30-25-10 At the commencement date, a lessor shall defer initial direct costs.
842-30-25-11 After the commencement date, a lessor shall recognize all of the following:
  1. The lease payments as income in profit or loss over the lease term on a straight-line basis unless another systematic and rational basis is more representative of the pattern in which benefit is expected to be derived from the use of the underlying asset, subject to paragraph 842-30-25-12
  2. Variable lease payments as income in profit or loss in the period in which the changes in facts and circumstances on which the variable lease payments are based occur
  3. Initial direct costs as an expense over the lease term on the same basis as lease income (as described in (a)).
842-30-25-12 If collectibility of the lease payments plus any amount necessary to satisfy a residual value guarantee (provided by the lessee or any other unrelated third party) is not probable at the commencement date, lease income shall be limited to the lesser of the income that would be recognized in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-11(a) through (b) or the lease payments, including variable lease payments, that have been collected from the lessee.
842-30-25-13 If the assessment of collectibility changes after the commencement date, any difference between the lease income that would have been recognized in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-11(a) through (b) and the lease payments, including variable lease payments, that have been collected from the lessee shall be recognized as a current-period adjustment to lease income.
842-30-25-14 See Example 1 (paragraphs 842-30-55-18 through 55-43) for an illustration of the requirements when collectibility is not probable.
Initial Measurement
General
> Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
842-30-30-1 At the commencement date, for a sales-type lease, a lessor shall measure the net investment in the lease to include both of the following:
a. The lease receivable, which is measured at the present value, discounted using the rate implicit in the lease, of:
1. The lease payments (as described in paragraph 842-10-30-5) not yet received by the lessor
2. The amount the lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term that is guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor
b. The unguaranteed residual asset at the present value of the amount the lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term that is not guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, discounted using the rate implicit in the lease.
842-30-30-2 At the commencement date, for a direct financing lease, a lessor shall measure the net investment in the lease to include the items in paragraph 842-30-30-1(a) through (b), reduced by the amount of any selling profit.
842-30-30-3 See Example 1 (paragraphs 842-30-55-18 through 55-43) for an illustration of the requirements for sales-type and direct financing leases.
> Operating Leases
842-30-30-4 A lessor shall continue to measure the underlying asset subject to an operating lease in accordance with other Topics.
Subsequent Measurement
General
> Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
842-30-35-1 After the commencement date, a lessor shall measure the net investment in the lease by doing both of the following:
  1. Increasing the carrying amount to reflect the interest income on the net investment in the lease. A lessor shall determine the interest income on the net investment in the lease in each period during the lease term as the amount that produces a constant periodic discount rate on the remaining balance of the net investment in the lease.
  2. Reducing the carrying amount to reflect the lease payments collected during the period.
842-30-35-2 After the commencement date, a lessor shall not remeasure the net investment in the lease unless the lease is modified and that modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-8.
> > Impairment of the Net Investment in the Lease
842-30-35-3 A lessor shall determine impairment related to the net investment in the lease and shall recognize any impairment in accordance with Topic 310 on receivables (as described in paragraphs 310-10-35-16 through 35-30). When determining the loss allowance for a net investment in the lease, a lessor shall take into consideration the collateral relating to the net investment in the lease. The collateral relating to the net investment in the lease represents the cash flows that the lessor would expect to derive from the underlying asset during the remaining lease term (for example, from sale of the asset or release of the asset for the remainder of the lease term), which excludes the cash flows that the lessor would expect to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term (for example, cash flows from leasing the asset after the end of the lease term).
> > Sale of the Lease Receivable
842-30-35-4 If a lessor sells the lease receivable associated with a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease and retains an interest in the unguaranteed residual asset, the lessor shall not continue to accrete the unguaranteed residual asset to its estimated value over the remaining lease term. The lessor shall report any remaining unguaranteed residual asset thereafter at its carrying amount at the date of the sale of the lease receivable and apply Topic 360 on property, plant, and equipment to determine whether the unguaranteed residual asset is impaired.
> > Accounting for the Underlying Asset at the End of the Lease Term
842-30-35-5 At the end of the lease term, a lessor shall reclassify the net investment in the lease to the appropriate category of asset (for example, property, plant, and equipment) in accordance with other Topics, measured at the carrying amount of the net investment in the lease. The lessor shall account for the underlying asset that was the subject of a lease in accordance with other Topics.
> Operating Leases
842-30-35-6 A lessor shall continue to measure, including testing for impairment in accordance with Section 360-10-35 on impairment or disposal of long-lived assets, the underlying asset subject to an operating lease in accordance with other Topics.
> Subleases
842-30-35-7 If the original lessee enters into a sublease or the original lease agreement is sold or transferred by the original lessee to a third party, the original lessor shall continue to account for the lease as it did before.
Derecognition
General
> Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
842-30-40-1 At the commencement date, a lessor shall derecognize the carrying amount of the underlying asset (if previously recognized) unless the lease is a sales-type lease and collectibility of the lease payments is not probable (see paragraph 842-30-25-3).
> > Lease Termination
842-30-40-2 If a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease is terminated before the end of the lease term, a lessor shall do all of the following:
  1. Test the net investment in the lease for impairment in accordance with Topic 310 on receivables and recognize any impairment loss identified
  2. Reclassify the net investment in the lease to the appropriate category of asset in accordance with other Topics, measured at the sum of the carrying amounts of the lease receivable (less any amounts still expected to be received by the lessor) and the residual asset
  3. Account for the underlying asset that was the subject of the lease in accordance with other Topics.
> > Subleases
842-30-40-3 If the original lease agreement is replaced by a new agreement with a new lessee, the lessor shall account for the termination of the original lease as provided in paragraph 842-30-40-2 and shall classify and account for the new lease as a separate transaction.
842-30-40-4 For guidance on the acquisition of the residual value of an underlying asset by a third party, see paragraph 360-10-25-2.
Other Presentation Matters
General
> Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
> > Statement of Financial Position
842-30-45-1 A lessor shall present lease assets (that is, the aggregate of the lessor's net investment in sales-type leases and direct financing leases) separately from other assets in the statement of financial position.
842-30-45-2 Lease assets shall be subject to the same considerations as other assets in classification as current or noncurrent assets in a classified balance sheet.
> > Statement of Comprehensive Income
842-30-45-3 A lessor shall either present in the statement of comprehensive income or disclose in the notes income arising from leases. If a lessor does not separately present lease income in the statement of comprehensive income, the lessor shall disclose which line items include lease income in the statement of comprehensive income.
842-30-45-4 A lessor shall present any profit or loss on the lease recognized at the commencement date in a manner that best reflects the lessor's business model(s). Examples of presentation include the following:
a. If a lessor uses leases as an alternative means of realizing value from the goods that it would otherwise sell, the lessor shall present revenue and cost of goods sold relating to its leasing activities in separate line items so that income and expenses from sold and leased items are presented consistently. Revenue recognized is the lesser of:
1. The fair value of the underlying asset at the commencement date
2.The sum of the lease receivable and any lease payments prepaid by the lessee.
Cost of goods sold is the carrying amount of the underlying asset at the commencement date minus the unguaranteed residual asset.
b. If a lessor uses leases for the purposes of providing finance, the lessor shall present the profit or loss in a single line item.
> > Statement of Cash Flows
842-30-45-5 In the statement of cash flows, a lessor shall classify cash receipts from leases within operating activities.
> Operating Leases
> > Statement of Financial Position
842-30-45-6 A lessor shall present the underlying asset subject to an operating lease in accordance with other Topics.
> > Statement of Cash Flows
842-30-45-7 In the statement of cash flows, a lessor shall classify cash receipts from leases within operating activities.
Disclosure
General
842-30-50-1 The objective of the disclosure requirements is to enable users of financial statements to assess the amount, timing, and uncertainty of cash flows arising from leases. To achieve that objective, a lessor shall disclose qualitative and quantitative information about all of the following:
  1. Its leases (as described in paragraphs 842-30-50-3(a), 842-30-50-4, and 842-30-50-7)
  2. The significant judgments made in applying the requirements in this Topic to those leases (as described in paragraph 842-30-50-3(b))
  3. The amounts recognized in the financial statements relating to those leases (as described in paragraphs 842-30-50-5 through 50-6 and 842-30-50-8 through 50-13).
842-30-50-2 A lessor shall consider the level of detail necessary to satisfy the disclosure objective and how much emphasis to place on each of the various requirements. A lessor shall aggregate or disaggregate disclosures so that useful information is not obscured by including a large amount of insignificant detail or by aggregating items that have different characteristics.
842-30-50-3 A lessor shall disclose both of the following:
a. Information about the nature of its leases, including:
1. A general description of those leases
2. The basis and terms and conditions on which variable lease payments are determined
3. The existence and terms and conditions of options to extend or terminate the lease
4. The existence and terms and conditions of options for a lessee to purchase the underlying asset.
b. Information about significant assumptions and judgments made in applying the requirements of this Topic, which may include the following:
1. The determination of whether a contract contains a lease (as described in paragraphs 842-10-15-2 through 15-27)
2. The allocation of the consideration in a contract between lease and nonlease components (as described in paragraphs 842-10-15-28 through 15-32)
3. The determination of the amount the lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term.
842-30-50-4 A lessor shall disclose any lease transactions between related parties (see Topic 850 on related party disclosures).
842-30-50-5 A lessor shall disclose lease income recognized in each annual and interim reporting period, in a tabular format, to include the following:
a. For sales-type leases and direct financing leases:
1. Profit or loss recognized at the commencement date (disclosed on a gross basis or a net basis consistent with paragraph 842-30-45-4)
2. Interest income either in aggregate or separated by components of the net investment in the lease.
b. For operating leases, lease income relating to lease payments.
c. Lease income relating to variable lease payments not included in the measurement of the lease receivable.
842-30-50-6 A lessor shall disclose in the notes the components of its aggregate net investment in sales-type and direct financing leases (that is, the carrying amount of its lease receivables, its unguaranteed residual assets, and any deferred selling profit on direct financing leases).
842-30-50-7 A lessor shall disclose information about how it manages its risk associated with the residual value of its leased assets. In particular, a lessor should disclose all of the following:
  1. Its risk management strategy for residual assets
  2. The carrying amount of residual assets covered by residual value guarantees (excluding guarantees considered to be lease payments for the lessor, as described in paragraph 842-30-30-1(a)(2))
  3. Any other means by which the lessor reduces its residual asset risk (for example, buyback agreements or variable lease payments for use in excess of specified limits).
> Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
842-30-50-8 In addition to the disclosures required by paragraphs 842-30-50-3 through 50-7, a lessor also shall provide the disclosures in paragraphs 842-30-50-9 through 50-10 for sales-type leases and direct financing leases.
842-30-50-9 A lessor shall explain significant changes in the balance of its unguaranteed residual assets and deferred selling profit on direct financing leases.
842-30-50-10 A lessor shall disclose a maturity analysis of its lease receivables, showing the undiscounted cash flows to be received on an annual basis for a minimum of each of the first five years and a total of the amounts for the remaining years. A lessor shall disclose a reconciliation of the undiscounted cash flows to the lease receivables recognized in the statement of financial position (or disclosed separately in the notes).
> Operating Leases
842-30-50-11 In addition to the disclosures required by paragraphs 842-30-50-3 through 50-7, a lessor also shall provide the disclosures in paragraphs 842-30-50-12 through 50-13 for operating leases.
842-30-50-12 A lessor shall disclose a maturity analysis of lease payments, showing the undiscounted cash flows to be received on an annual basis for a minimum of each of the first five years and a total of the amounts for the remaining years. A lessor shall present that maturity analysis separately from the maturity analysis required by paragraph 842-30-50-10 for sales-type leases and direct financing leases.
842-30-50-13 A lessor shall provide disclosures required by Topic 360 on property, plant, and equipment separately for underlying assets under operating leases from owned assets.
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
General
> Implementation Guidance
> > Sales of Equipment with Guaranteed Minimum Resale Amount
842-30-55-1 This implementation guidance addresses the application of the provisions of this Subtopic in the following circumstances. A manufacturer sells equipment with an expected useful life of several years to end users (purchasers) utilizing various sales incentive programs. Under one such sales incentive program, the manufacturer contractually guarantees that the purchaser will receive a minimum resale amount at the time the equipment is disposed of, contingent on certain requirements.
842-30-55-2 The manufacturer provides the guarantee by agreeing to do either of the following:
  1. Reacquire the equipment at a guaranteed price at specified time periods as a means to facilitate its resale
  2. Pay the purchaser for the deficiency, if any, between the sales proceeds received for the equipment and the guaranteed minimum resale value.
There may be dealer involvement in these types of transactions, but the minimum resale guarantee is the responsibility of the manufacturer.
842-30-55-3 A sales incentive program in which an entity (for example, a manufacturer) contractually guarantees that it has either a right or an obligation to reacquire the equipment at a guaranteed price (or prices) at a specified time (or specified time periods) as a means to facilitate its resale should be evaluated in accordance with the guidance on satisfaction of performance obligations in paragraph 606-10-25-30 and the guidance on repurchase agreements in paragraphs 606-10-55-66 through 55-78. If that evaluation results in a lease, the manufacturer should account for the transaction as a lease using the principles of lease accounting in Subtopic 842-10 and in this Subtopic.
842-30-55-4 A sales incentive program in which an entity (for example, a manufacturer) contractually guarantees that it will pay a purchaser for the deficiency, if any, between the sales proceeds received for the equipment and the guaranteed minimum resale value should be accounted for in accordance with Topic 460 on guarantees and Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers.
842-30-55-5 The lease payments used as part of the determination of whether the transaction should be classified as an operating lease, a direct financing lease, or a sales-type lease generally will be the difference between the proceeds upon the equipment's initial transfer and the amount of the residual value guarantee to the purchaser as of the first exercise date of the guarantee.
842-30-55-6 If the transaction qualifies as an operating lease, the net proceeds upon the equipment's initial transfer should be recorded as a liability in the manufacturer's balance sheet.
842-30-55-7 The liability is then subsequently reduced on a pro rata basis over the period to the first exercise date of the guarantee to the amount of the guaranteed residual value at that date with corresponding credits to revenue in the manufacturer's income statement. Any further reduction in the guaranteed residual value resulting from the purchaser's decision to continue to use the equipment should be recognized in a similar manner.
842-30-55-8 The equipment should be included in the manufacturers balance sheet and depreciated following the manufacturer's normal depreciation policy.
842-30-55-9 The Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Subsections of Subtopic 360-10 on property, plant, and equipment provide guidance on the accounting for any potential impairment of the equipment.
842-30-55-10 At the time the purchaser elects to exercise the residual value guarantee by selling the equipment to another party, the liability should be reduced by the amount, if any, paid to the purchaser. The remaining undepreciated carrying amount of the equipment and any remaining liability should be removed from the balance sheet and included in the determination of income of the period of the equipment's sale.
842-30-55-11 Alternatively, if the purchaser exercises the residual value guarantee by selling the equipment to the manufacturer at the guaranteed price, the liability should be reduced by the amount paid to the purchaser. Any remaining liability should be included in the determination of income of the period of the exercise of the guarantee.
842-30-55-12 The accounting for a guaranteed minimum resale value is not in the scope of Topic 815 on derivatives and hedging. In the transaction described, the embedded guarantee feature is not an embedded derivative instrument that must be accounted for separately from the lease because it does not meet the criterion in paragraph 815-15-25-1(c).
842-30-55-13 Specifically, if freestanding, the guarantee feature would be excluded from the scope of paragraph 815-10-15-59(b) because of both of the following conditions:
  1. It is not exchange traded.
  2. The underlying on which settlement is based is the price of a nonfinancial asset of one of the parties, and that asset is not readily convertible to cash. It is assumed that the equipment is not readily convertible to cash, as that phrase is used in Topic 815.
842-30-55-14 Paragraph 815-10-15-59(b)(2) states that the related exception applies only if the nonfinancial asset related to the underlying is owned by the party that would not benefit under the contract from an increase in the price or value of the nonfinancial asset. (In some circumstances, the exclusion in paragraph 815-10-15-63 also would apply.)
842-30-55-15 Lastly, Topic 460 on guarantees does not affect the guarantor's accounting for the guarantee because that Topic does not apply to a guarantee for which the underlying is related to an asset of the guarantor. Because the manufacturer continues to recognize the residual value of the equipment guaranteed by the manufacturer as an asset (included in the seller-lessor's net investment in the lease) if recording a sales-type lease, that guarantee does not meet the characteristics in paragraph 460-10-15-4 and is, therefore, not subject to the guidance in Topic 460. Additionally, if the lease is classified as an operating lease, the manufacturer does not remove the asset from its books, and its guarantee would be a market value guarantee of its own asset. A market value guarantee of the guarantor's own asset is not within the scope of Topic 460, and the guidance in paragraphs 842-10-55-32 through 55-33 for an operating lease is not affected. As a result, the guarantor's accounting for the guarantee is unaffected by Topic 460.
> > Guarantee Payments Received
842-30-55-16 Indemnification payments related to tax effects other than the investment tax credit should be reflected by the lessor in income consistent with the classification of the lease. That is, the payments should be accounted for as an adjustment of the lessor's net investment in the lease if the lease is a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease or recognized ratably over the lease term if the lease is an operating lease.
> > Pattern of Benefit from Use of the Underlying Asset
842-30-55-17 This Subtopic considers the right to control the use of the underlying asset as the equivalent of physical use. If the lessee controls the use of the underlying asset, recognition of lease income in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-11(a) should not be affected by the extent to which the lessee uses the underlying asset.
> Illustrations
> > Illustration of Lessor Accounting
842-30-55-18 Example 1 illustrates how a lessor would account for sales-type leases and direct financing leases.
> > > Example 1—Lessor Accounting Example
> > > > Case A—Lessor Accounting—Sales-Type Lease
842-30-55-19 Lessor enters into a 6-year lease of equipment with Lessee, receiving annual lease payments of $9,500, payable at the end of each year. Lessee provides a residual value guarantee of $13,000. Lessor concludes that it is probable it will collect the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by Lessee. The equipment has a 9-year estimated remaining economic life, a carrying amount of $54,000, and a fair value of $62,000 at the commencement date. Lessor expects the residual value of the equipment to be $20,000 at the end of the 6-year lease term. The lease does not transfer ownership of the underlying asset to Lessee or contain an option for Lessee to purchase the underlying asset. Lessor incurs $2,000 in initial direct costs in connection with obtaining the lease, and no amounts are prepaid by Lessee to Lessor. The rate implicit in the lease is 5.4839 percent.
842-30-55-20 Lessor classifies the lease as a sales-type lease because the sum of the present value of the lease payments and the present value of the residual value guaranteed by the lessee amounts to substantially all of the fair value of the equipment. None of the other criteria to be classified as a sales-type lease are met.
842-30-55-21 Lessor measures the net investment in the lease at $62,000 at lease commencement, which is equal to the fair value of the equipment. The net investment in the lease consists of the lease receivable (which includes the 6 annual payments of $9,500 and the residual value guarantee of $13,000, both discounted at the rate implicit in the lease, which equals $56,920) and the present value of the unguaranteed residual value (the present value of the difference between the expected residual value of $20,000 and the residual value guarantee of $13,000, which equals $5,080). Lessor calculates the selling profit on the lease as $8,000, which is the difference between the lease receivable ($56,920) and the carrying amount of the equipment net of the unguaranteed residual asset ($54,000 – $5,080 = $48,920). The initial direct costs do not factor into the calculation of the selling profit in this Example because they are not eligible for deferral on the basis of the guidance in paragraph 842-30-25-1(c) (that is, because the fair value of the underlying asset is different from its carrying amount at the commencement date).
842-30-55-22 At the commencement date, Lessor derecognizes the equipment (carrying amount of $54,000) and recognizes the net investment in the lease of $62,000 and the selling profit of $8,000. Lessor also pays and recognizes the initial direct costs of $2,000 as an expense.
842-30-55-23 At the end of Year 1, Lessor recognizes the receipt of a lease payment of $9,500 and interest on the net investment in the lease (the beginning balance of the net investment in the lease of $62,000 × the rate implicit in the lease of 5.4839% = $3,400), resulting in a balance in the net investment of the lease of $55,900. For disclosure purposes, Lessor also calculates the separate components of the net investment in the lease: the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset. The lease receivable equals $50,541 (the beginning balance of the lease receivable of $56,920 – the annual lease payment received of $9,500 + the amount of interest income on the lease receivable during Year 1 of $3,121, which is $56,920 × 5.4839%). The unguaranteed residual asset equals $5,360 (the beginning balance of the unguaranteed residual asset of $5,081 + the interest income on the unguaranteed residual asset during Year 1 of $279, which is $5,081 × 5.4839%).
842-30-55-24 At the end of Year 6, Lessor reclassifies the net investment in the lease, then equal to the estimated residual value of the underlying asset of $20,000, as equipment.
> > > > Case B—Lessor Accounting—Sales-Type Lease—Collectibility of the Lease Payments Is Not Probable
842-30-55-25 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case A (paragraphs 842-30-55-19 through 55-24), except that it is not probable Lessor will collect the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by Lessee. In reaching this conclusion, the entity observes that Lessee's ability and intention to pay may be in doubt because of the following factors:
  1. Lessee intends to make the lease payments primarily from income derived from its business in which the equipment will be used (which is a business facing significant risks because of high competition in the industry and Lessee's limited experience)
  2. Lessee has limited credit history and no significant other income or assets with which to make the payments if the business is not successful.
842-30-55-26 In accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-3, Lessor does not derecognize the equipment and does not recognize a net investment in the lease or any selling profit or selling loss. However, consistent with Case A, Lessor pays and recognizes the initial direct costs of $2,000 as an expense at the commencement date.
842-30-55-27 At the end of Year 1, Lessor reassesses whether it is probable it will collect the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by Lessee and concludes that it is not probable. In addition, neither of the events in paragraph 842-30-25-3(b) has occurred. The contract has not been terminated and Lessor has not repossessed the equipment because Lessee is fulfilling the terms of the contract. Consequently, Lessor accounts for the $9,500 Year 1 lease payment as a deposit liability in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-3. Lessor recognizes depreciation expense on the equipment of $7,714 ($54,000 carrying value ÷ 7-year useful life).
842-30-55-28 Lessor's accounting in Years 2 and 3 is the same as in Year 1. At the end of Year 4, Lessee makes the fourth $9,500 annual lease payment such that the deposit liability equals $38,000. Lessor concludes that collectibility of the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by Lessee is now probable on the basis of Lessee's payment history under the contract and the fact that Lessee has been successfully operating its business for four years. Lessor does not reassess the classification of the lease as a sales-type lease.
842-30-55-29 Consequently, at the end of Year 4, Lessor derecognizes the equipment, which has a carrying amount of $23,143, and recognizes a net investment in the lease of $35,519. The net investment in the lease consists of the lease receivable (the sum of the 2 remaining annual payments of $9,500 and the residual value guarantee of $13,000, discounted at the rate implicit in the lease of 5.4839 percent determined at the commencement date, which equals $29,228) and the unguaranteed residual asset (the present value of the difference between the expected residual value of $20,000 and the residual value guarantee of $13,000, which equals $6,291). Lessor recognizes selling profit of $50,376, the difference between (a) the sum of the lease receivable and the carrying amount of the deposit liability ($29,228 lease receivable + $38,000 in lease payments already made = $67,228) and (b) the carrying amount of the equipment, net of the unguaranteed residual asset ($23,143 – $6,291 = $16,852).
842-30-55-30 After the end of Year 4, Lessor accounts for the remaining two years of the lease in the same manner as any other sales-type lease. Consistent with Case A, at the end of Year 6, Lessor reclassifies the net investment in the lease, then equal to the estimated residual value of the underlying asset of $20,000, as equipment.
> > > > Case C—Lessor Accounting—Direct Financing Lease
842-30-55-31 Assume the same facts and circumstances as in Case A (paragraphs 842-30-55-19 through 55-24), except that the $13,000 residual value guarantee is provided by a third party, not by Lessee. Collectibility of the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the third party residual value guarantee is probable.
842-30-55-32 None of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 to be classified as a sales-type lease are met. Lessor classifies the lease as a direct financing lease because the sum of the present value of the lease payments and the present value of the residual value guaranteed by the third party amounts to substantially all of the fair value of the equipment. In accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-4, the discount rate used to determine the present value of the lease payments and the guaranteed residual value (5.4839 percent) assumes that no initial direct costs will be deferred because, at the commencement date, the fair value of the equipment is different from its carrying amount.
842-30-55-33 At the commencement date, Lessor derecognizes the equipment and recognizes a net investment in the lease of $56,000, which is equal to the carrying amount of the underlying asset of $54,000 plus the initial direct costs of $2,000 that are included in the measurement of the net investment in the lease in accordance with paragraph 842-30-25-8 (that is, because the lease is classified as a direct financing lease). The net investment in the lease includes a lease receivable of $58,669 (the present value of the 6 annual lease payments of $9,500 and the third-party residual value guarantee of $13,000, discounted at the rate implicit in the lease of 4.646 percent), an unguaranteed residual asset of $5,331 (the present value of the difference between the estimated residual value of $20,000 and the third-party residual value guarantee of $13,000, discounted at 4.646 percent), and deferred selling profit of $8,000.
842-30-55-34 Lessor calculates the deferred selling profit of $8,000 in this Example as follows:
  1. The lease receivable ($58,669); minus
  2. The carrying amount of the equipment ($54,000), net of the unguaranteed residual asset ($5,331), which equals $48,669; minus
  3. The initial direct costs included in the measurement of the net investment in the lease ($2,000).
842-30-55-35 At the end of Year 1, Lessor recognizes the receipt of the lease payment of $9,500 and interest on the net investment in the lease of $4,624 (the beginning balance of the net investment in the lease of $56,000 × the discount rate that, at the commencement date, would have resulted in the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset equaling $56,000, which is 8.258 percent), resulting in a balance in the net investment of the lease of $51,124.
842-30-55-36 Also at the end of Year 1, Lessor calculates, for disclosure purposes, the separate components of the net investment in the lease: the lease receivable, the unguaranteed residual asset, and the deferred selling profit. The lease receivable equals $51,895 (the beginning balance of the lease receivable of $58,669 – the annual lease payment received of $9,500 + the amount of interest income on the lease receivable during Year 1 of $2,726, which is $58,669 × 4.646%). The unguaranteed residual asset equals $5,578 (the beginning balance of the unguaranteed residual asset of $5,331 + the interest income on the unguaranteed residual asset during Year 1 of $247, which is $5,331 × 4.646%). The deferred selling profit equals $6,349 (the initial deferred selling profit of $8,000 – $1,651 recognized during Year 1 [the $1,651 is the difference between the interest income recognized on the net investment in the lease during Year 1 of $4,624 calculated in paragraph 842-30-55-35 and the sum of the interest income earned on the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset during Year 1]).
842-30-55-37 At the end of Year 2, Lessor recognizes the receipt of the lease payment of $9,500 and interest on the net investment in the lease (the beginning of Year 2 balance of the net investment in the lease of $51,124 × 8.258%, which is $4,222), resulting in a carrying amount of the net investment in the lease of $45,846.
842-30-55-38 Also at the end of Year 2, Lessor calculates the separate components of the net investment in the lease. The lease receivable equals $44,806 (the beginning of Year 2 balance of $51,895 – the annual lease payment received of $9,500 + the interest income earned on the lease receivable during Year 2 of $2,411, which is $51,895 × 4.646%). The unguaranteed residual asset equals $5,837 (the beginning of Year 2 balance of the unguaranteed residual asset of $5,578 + the interest income earned on the unguaranteed residual asset during Year 2 of $259, which is $5,578 × 4.646%). The deferred selling profit equals $4,797 (the beginning of Year 2 balance of deferred selling profit of $6,349 – $1,552 recognized during Year 2 [the $1,552 is the difference between the interest income recognized on the net investment in the lease during Year 2 of $4,222 and the sum of the interest income earned on the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset during Year 2]).
842-30-55-39 At the end of Year 6, Lessor reclassifies the net investment in the lease, then equal to the estimated residual value of the underlying asset of $20,000, as equipment.
> > > > Case D—Lessor Accounting—Collectibility Is Not Probable
842-30-55-40 Assume the same facts and circumstances as Case C (paragraphs 842-30-55-31 through 55-39), except that collectibility of the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by the third party is not probable and the lease payments escalate every year over the lease term. Specifically, the lease payment due at the end of Year 1 is $7,000, and subsequent payments increase by $1,000 every year for the remainder of the lease term. Because it is not probable that Lessor will collect the lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by the third party in accordance with paragraph 842-10-25-3, Lessor classifies the lease as an operating lease.
842-30-55-41 Lessor continues to measure the equipment in accordance with Topic 360 on property, plant, and equipment.
842-30-55-42 Because collectibility of the lease payments is not probable, Lessor recognizes lease income only when Lessee makes the lease payments, and in the amount of those lease payments. Therefore, Lessor only recognizes lease income of $7,000 at the point in time Lessee makes the end of Year 1 payment for that amount.
842-30-55-43 At the end of Year 2, Lessor concludes that collectibility of the remaining lease payments and any amount necessary to satisfy the residual value guarantee provided by the third party is probable; therefore, Lessor recognizes lease income of $12,000. The amount of $12,000 is the difference between lease income that would have been recognized through the end of Year 2 ($57,000 in total lease payments ÷ 6 years = $9,500 per year × 2 years = $19,000) and the $7,000 in lease income previously recognized. Collectibility of the remaining lease payments remains probable throughout the remainder of the lease term; therefore, Lessor continues to recognize lease income of $9,500 each year.
6. Add Subtopic 842-40, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Leases—Sale and Leaseback Transactions
Overview and Background
General
842-40-05-1 This Subtopic addresses accounting for sale and leaseback transactions when a lease has been accounted for in accordance with Subtopic 842-10 and either Subtopic 842-20 or Subtopic 842-30.
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
842-40-15-1 This Subtopic follows the same Scope and Scope Exceptions as outlined in the Overall Subtopic; see Section 842-10-15.
842-40-15-2 If an entity (the seller-lessee) transfers an asset to another entity (the buyer-lessor) and leases that asset back from the buyer-lessor, both the seller-lessee and the buyer-lessor shall account for the transfer contract and the lease in accordance with Sections 842-40-25, 842-40-30, and 842-40-50.
842-40-15-3 See paragraphs 842-40-55-1 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the scope of this Subtopic. See Example 3 (paragraphs 842-40-55-39 through 55-44) for an illustration of the scope of this Subtopic.
Glossary
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
The date on which a lessor makes an underlying asset available for use by a lessee. See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the commencement date.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Direct Financing Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets none of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 but meets the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-3(b).
Fair Value (second definition)
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Finance Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Lease
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lease Payments
See paragraph 842-10-30-5 for what constitutes lease payments from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Lease Term
The noncancellable period for which a lessee has the right to use an underlying asset, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor.
Lessee
An entity that enters into a contract to obtain the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration
Lessor
An entity that enters into a contract to provide the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Market Participants
Buyers and sellers in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability that have all of the following characteristics:
  1. They are independent of each other, that is, they are not related parties, although the price in a related-party transaction may be used as an input to a fair value measurement if the reporting entity has evidence that the transaction was entered into at market terms
  2. They are knowledgeable, having a reasonable understanding about the asset or liability and the transaction using all available information, including information that might be obtained through due diligence efforts that are usual and customary
  3. They are able to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability
  4. They are willing to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability, that is, they are motivated but not forced or otherwise compelled to do so.
Operating Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, any lease other than a finance lease.
From the perspective of a lessor, any lease other than a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease.
Orderly Transaction
A transaction that assumes exposure to the market for a period before the measurement date to allow for marketing activities that are usual and customary for transactions involving such assets or liabilities; it is not a forced transaction (for example, a forced liquidation or distress sale).
Related Parties
Related parties include:
  1. Affiliates of the entity
  2. Entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of Section 825-10-15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity
  3. Trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management
  4. Principal owners of the entity and members of their immediate families
  5. Management of the entity and members of their immediate families
  6. Other parties with which the entity may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests
  7. Other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
Residual Value Guarantee
A guarantee made to a lessor that the value of an underlying asset returned to the lessor at the end of a lease will be at least a specified amount.
Sales-Type Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Sublease
A transaction in which an underlying asset is re-leased by the lessee (or intermediate lessor) to a third party (the sublessee) and the original (or head) lease between the lessor and the lessee remains in effect.
Underlying Asset
An asset that is the subject of a lease for which a right to use that asset has been conveyed to a lessee. The underlying asset could be a physically distinct portion of a single asset.
Recognition
General
> Determining Whether the Transfer of the Asset Is a Sale
842-40-25-1 An entity shall apply the following requirements in Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers when determining whether the transfer of an asset shall be accounted for as a sale of the asset:
  1. Paragraphs 606-10-25-1 through 25-8 on the existence of a contract
  2. Paragraph 606-10-25-30 on when an entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of an asset.
842-40-25-2 The existence of a leaseback (that is, a seller-lessee's right to use the underlying asset for a period of time) does not, in isolation, prevent the buyerlessor from obtaining control of the asset. However, the buyer-lessor is not considered to have obtained control of the asset in accordance with the guidance on when an entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of an asset in Topic 606 if the leaseback would be classified as a finance lease or a sales-type lease.
842-40-25-3 An option for the seller-lessee to repurchase the asset would preclude accounting for the transfer of the asset as a sale of the asset unless both of the following criteria are met:
  1. The exercise price of the option is the fair value of the asset at the time the option is exercised.
  2. There are alternative assets, substantially the same as the transferred asset, readily available in the marketplace.
> Transfer of the Asset Is a Sale
842-40-25-4 If the transfer of the asset is a sale in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3, both of the following apply:
a. The seller-lessee shall:
1. Recognize the transaction price for the sale at the point in time the buyer-lessor obtains control of the asset in accordance with paragraph 606-10-25-30 in accordance with the guidance on determining the transaction price in paragraphs 606-10-32-2 through 32-27
2. Derecognize the carrying amount of the underlying asset
3. Account for the lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-20.
b. The buyer-lessor shall account for the purchase in accordance with other Topics and for the lease in accordance with Subtopic 842-30.
> Transfer of the Asset Is Not a Sale
842-40-25-5 If the transfer of the asset is not a sale in accordance with paragraphs
842-40-25-1 through 25-3, both of the following apply:
  1. The seller-lessee shall not derecognize the transferred asset and shall account for any amounts received as a financial liability in accordance with other Topics.
  2. The buyer-lessor shall not recognize the transferred asset and shall account for the amounts paid as a receivable in accordance with other Topics.
Initial Measurement
General
> Transfer of the Asset Is a Sale
842-40-30-1 An entity shall determine whether a sale and leaseback transaction is at fair value on the basis of the difference between either of the following, whichever is more readily determinable:
  1. The sale price of the asset and the fair value of the asset
  2. The present value of the lease payments and the present value of market rental payments.
842-40-30-2 If the sale and leaseback transaction is not at fair value, the entity shall adjust the sale price of the asset on the same basis the entity used to determine that the transaction was not at fair value in accordance with paragraph 842-40-30-1. The entity shall account for both of the following:
  1. Any increase to the sale price of the asset as a prepayment of rent
  2. Any reduction of the sale price of the asset as additional financing provided by the buyer-lessor to the seller-lessee. The seller-lessee and the buyer-lessor shall account for the additional financing in accordance with other Topics.
842-40-30-3 A sale and leaseback transaction is not off market solely because the sale price or the lease payments include a variable component. In determining whether the sale and leaseback transaction is at fair value, the entity should consider those variable payments it reasonably expects to be entitled to (or to make) on the basis of all of the information (historical, current, and forecast) that is reasonably available to the entity. For a seller-lessee, this would include estimating any variable consideration to which it expects to be entitled in accordance with paragraphs 606-10-32-5 through 32-9.
842-40-30-4 If the transaction is a related party lease, an entity shall not make the adjustments required in paragraph 842-40-30-2, but shall provide the required disclosures as discussed in paragraphs 842-20-50-7 and 842-30-50-4.
842-40-30-5 See Examples 1 and 2 (paragraphs 842-40-55-22 through 55-38) for illustrations of the requirements for a sale and leaseback transaction.
> Transfer of the Asset Is Not a Sale
842-40-30-6 The guidance in paragraph 842-40-25-5 notwithstanding, the seller-lessee shall adjust the interest rate on its financial liability as necessary to ensure that both of the following apply:
  1. Interest on the financial liability is not greater than the principal payments on the financial liability over the shorter of the lease term and the term of the financing. The term of the financing may be shorter than the lease term because the transfer of an asset that does not qualify as a sale initially may qualify as a sale at a point in time before the end of the lease term.
  2. The carrying amount of the asset does not exceed the carrying amount of the financial liability at the earlier of the end of the lease term or the date at which control of the asset will transfer to the buyer-lessor (for example, the date at which a repurchase option expires if that date is earlier than the end of the lease term).
Disclosure
General
842-40-50-1 If a seller-lessee or a buyer-lessor enters into a sale and leaseback transaction that is accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-4 and 842-40-30-1 through 30-3, it shall provide the disclosures required in paragraphs 842-20-50-1 through 50-9 for a seller-lessee or paragraphs 842-30-50-1 through 50-13 for a buyer-lessor.
842-40-50-2 In addition to the disclosures required by paragraphs 842-20-50-1 through 50-9, a seller-lessee that enters into a sale and leaseback transaction shall disclose both of the following:
  1. The main terms and conditions of that transaction
  2. Any gains or losses arising from the transaction separately from gains or losses on disposal of other assets.
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
General
> Implementation Guidance
> > Control of the Underlying Asset before the Commencement Date
842-40-55-1 A lessee may obtain legal title to the underlying asset before that legal title is transferred to the lessor and the asset is leased to the lessee. If the lessee controls the underlying asset (that is, it can direct its use and obtain substantially all of its remaining benefits) before the asset is transferred to the lessor, the transaction is a sale and leaseback transaction that is accounted for in accordance with this Subtopic.
842-40-55-2 If the lessee obtains legal title, but does not obtain control of the underlying asset before the asset is transferred to the lessor, the transaction is not a sale and leaseback transaction. For example, this may be the case if a manufacturer, a lessor, and a lessee negotiate a transaction for the purchase of an asset from the manufacturer by the lessor, which in turn is leased to the lessee. For tax or other reasons, the lessee might obtain legal title to the underlying asset momentarily before legal title transfers to the lessor. In this case, if the lessee obtains legal title to the asset but does not control the asset before it is transferred to the lessor, the transaction is accounted for as a purchase of the asset by the lessor and a lease between the lessor and the lessee.
> > Costs of the Lessee Relating to the Construction or Design of an Underlying Asset
842-40-55-3 An entity may negotiate a lease before the underlying asset is available for use by the lessee. For some leases, the underlying asset may need to be constructed or redesigned for use by the lessee. Depending on the terms and conditions of the contract, a lessee may be required to make payments relating to the construction or design of the asset.
842-40-55-4 If a lessee incurs costs relating to the construction or design of an underlying asset before the commencement date, the lessee should account for those costs in accordance with other Topics, for example, Topic 330 on inventory or Topic 360 on property, plant, and equipment. Costs relating to the construction or design of an underlying asset do not include payments made by the lessee for the right to use the underlying asset. Payments for the right to use the underlying asset are lease payments, regardless of the timing of those payments or the form of those payments (for example, a lessee might contribute construction materials for the asset under construction).
842-40-55-5 If the lessee controls the underlying asset being constructed before the commencement date, the transaction is accounted for in accordance with this Subtopic. Any one (or more) of the following would demonstrate that the lessee controls an underlying asset that is under construction before the commencement date:
a. The lessee has the right to obtain the partially constructed underlying asset at any point during the construction period (for example, by making a payment to the lessor).
b. The lessor has an enforceable right to payment for its performance to date, and the asset does not have an alternative use (see paragraph 842-10-55-7) to the owner-lessor. In evaluating whether the asset has an alternative use to the owner-lessor, an entity should consider the characteristics of the asset that will ultimately be leased.
c. The lessee legally owns either:
1. Both the land and the property improvements (for example, a building) that are under construction
2. The non-real-estate asset (for example, a ship or an airplane) that is under construction.
d. The lessee controls the land that property improvements will be constructed upon (this includes where the lessee enters into a transaction to transfer the land to the lessor, but the transfer does not qualify as a sale in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3) and does not enter into a lease of the land before the beginning of construction that, together with renewal options, permits the lessor or another unrelated third party to lease the land for substantially all of the economic life of the property improvements.
e. The lessee is leasing the land that property improvements will be constructed upon, the term of which, together with lessee renewal options, is for substantially all of the economic life of the property improvements, and does not enter into a sublease of the land before the beginning of construction that, together with renewal options, permits the lessor or another unrelated third party to sublease the land for substantially all of the economic life of the property improvements.
The list of circumstances above in which a lessee controls an underlying asset that is under construction before the commencement date is not all inclusive. There may be other circumstances that individually or in combination demonstrate that a lessee controls an underlying asset that is under construction before the commencement date.
842-40-55-6 See Example 3 (paragraphs 842-40-55-39 through 55-44) for an illustration of the scope of this Subtopic.
> > Lessee Indemnification for Environmental Contamination
842-40-55-7 A provision that requires lessee indemnifications for preexisting environmental contamination does not, on its own, mean that the lessee controlled the underlying asset before the lease commenced regardless of the likelihood of loss resulting from the indemnity. Consequently, the presence of such a provision does not mean the transaction is in the scope of this Subtopic.
> > Sale Subject to a Preexisting Lease
842-40-55-8 An entity owns an interest in an underlying asset and also is a lessee under an operating lease for all or a portion of the underlying asset. Acquisition of an ownership interest in the underlying asset and consummation of the lease occurred at or near the same time. This owner-lessee relationship can occur, for example, when the entity has an investment in a partnership that owns the underlying asset (or a larger asset of which the underlying asset is a distinct portion). The entity subsequently sells its interest or the partnership sells the underlying asset to an independent third party, and the entity continues to lease the underlying asset under the preexisting operating lease.
842-40-55-9 A transaction should be subject to the guidance in this Subtopic if the scope or price of the preexisting lease is modified in connection with the sale. If the scope or the price of the preexisting lease is not modified in conjunction with the sale, the sale should be accounted for in accordance with other Topics.
842-40-55-10 A lease between parties under common control should not be considered a preexisting lease. Accordingly, the guidance in this Subtopic should be applied to transactions that include nonfinancial assets within its scope, except if Topic 980 on regulated operations applies. That is, if one of the parties under common control is a regulated entity with a lease that has been approved by the appropriate regulatory agency, that lease should be considered a preexisting lease.
> > Transfer of Tax Benefits
842-40-55-11 A U.S. entity purchases an asset and enters into a contract with a foreign investor that provides that foreign investor with an ownership right in, but not necessarily title to, the asset. That ownership right enables the foreign investor to claim certain benefits of ownership of the asset for tax purposes in the foreign tax jurisdiction.
842-40-55-12 The U.S. entity also enters into a contract in the form of a leaseback for the ownership right with the foreign investor. The contract contains a purchase option for the U.S. entity to acquire the foreign investor's ownership right in the asset at the end of the lease term.
842-40-55-13 The foreign investor pays the U.S. entity an amount of cash on the basis of an appraised value of the asset. The U.S. entity immediately transfers a portion of that cash to a third party, and that third party assumes the U.S. entity's obligation to make the future lease payments, including the purchase option payment. The cash retained by the U.S. entity is consideration for the tax benefits to be obtained by the foreign investor in the foreign tax jurisdiction. The U.S. entity may agree to indemnify the foreign investor against certain future events that would reduce the availability of tax benefits to the foreign investor. The U.S. entity also may agree to indemnify the third-party trustee against certain future events.
842-40-55-14 The result of the transaction is that both the U.S. entity and the foreign investor have a tax basis in the same depreciable asset.
842-40-55-15 An entity should determine whether the transfer of the ownership right is a sale based on the guidance in paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3. Consistent with paragraphs 842-40-25-2 through 25-3, if the leaseback for the ownership right is a finance lease or if the U.S. entity has an option to repurchase the ownership right at any exercise price other than the fair value of that right on the exercise date, there is no sale. If the transfer of the ownership right is not a sale, consistent with the guidance in paragraph 842-40-25-5, the entity should account for the cash received from the foreign investor as a financial liability in accordance with other Topics.
842-40-55-16 If the transfer of the ownership right is a sale, income recognition for the cash received should be determined on the basis of individual facts and circumstances. Immediate income recognition is not appropriate if there is more than a remote possibility of loss of the cash consideration received because of indemnification or other contingencies.
842-40-55-17 The total consideration received by the U.S. entity is compensation for both the tax benefits and the indemnification of the foreign investor or other third-party trustee. The recognition of a liability for the indemnification agreement at inception in accordance with the guidance in Topic 460 on guarantees would reduce the amount of income related to the tax benefits that the seller-lessee would recognize immediately when the possibility of loss is remote.
> > Sale-Leaseback-Sublease Transactions
842-40-55-18 An entity enters into a sale and leaseback of an asset that meets either of the following criteria:
  1. The asset is subject to an operating lease.
  2. The asset is subleased or intended to be subleased by the seller-lessee to another party under an operating lease.
842-40-55-19 A sale-leaseback-sublease transaction is within the scope of this Subtopic. The existence of the sublease (that is, the operating lease in paragraph 842-40-55-18(a) or (b)) does not, in isolation, prevent the buyer-lessor from obtaining control of the asset in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3, nor does it prevent the seller-lessee from controlling the asset before its transfer to the buyer-lessor (that is, the seller-lessee is subject to the same requirements for determining whether the transfer of the asset is a sale as it would be without the sublease). All facts and circumstances should be considered in determining whether the buyer-lessor obtains control of the underlying asset from the seller-lessee in a sale-leaseback-sublease transaction.
> > Seller-Lessee Guarantee of the Residual Value
842-40-55-20 The seller-lessee may guarantee to the lessor that the residual value will be a stipulated amount at the end of the lease term. If the transfer of the asset is a sale in accordance with paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3, the seller-lessee residual value guarantee should be accounted for in the same manner as any other residual value guarantee provided by a lessee.
842-40-55-21 The residual value guarantee does not, on its own, preclude accounting for the transaction as a sale and leaseback, but should be considered in evaluating whether control of the asset has transferred to the buyer-lessor in accordance with paragraph 606-10-25-30. For example, a significant residual value guarantee by the seller-lessee may affect an entity's consideration of the transfer of control indicator in paragraph 606-10-25-30(d).
> Illustrations
> > Illustration of Sale and Leaseback Transaction
842-40-55-22 Examples 1 and 2 illustrate the accounting for sale and leaseback transactions.
> > > Example 1—Sale and Leaseback Transaction
842-40-55-23 An entity (Seller) sells a piece of land to an unrelated entity (Buyer) for cash of $2 million. Immediately before the transaction, the land has a carrying amount of $1 million. At the same time, Seller enters into a contract with Buyer for the right to use the land for 10 years (the leaseback), with annual payments of $120,000 payable in arrears. This Example ignores any initial direct costs associated with the transaction. The terms and conditions of the transaction are such that Buyer obtains substantially all the remaining benefits of the land on the basis of the combination of the cash flows it will receive from Seller during the leaseback and the benefits that will be derived from the land at the end of the lease term. In determining that a sale occurs at commencement of the leaseback, Seller considers that, at that date, all of the following apply:
  1. Seller has a present right to payment of the sales price of $2 million.
  2. Buyer obtains legal title to the land.
  3. Buyer has the significant risks and rewards of ownership of the land because, for example, Buyer has the ability to sell the land if the property value increases and also must absorb any losses, realized or unrealized, if the property value declines.
842-40-55-24 The observable fair value of the land at the date of sale is $1.4 million. Because the fair value of the land is observable, both Seller and Buyer utilize that benchmark in evaluating whether the sale is at market term. Because the sale is not at fair value (that is, the sales price is significantly in excess of the fair value of the land), both Seller and Buyer adjust for the off-market terms in accounting for the transaction. Seller recognizes a gain of $400,000 ($1.4 million – $1 million) on the sale of the land. The amount of the excess sale price of $600,000 ($2 million – $1.4 million) is recognized as additional financing from Buyer to Seller (that is, Seller is receiving the additional benefit of financing from Buyer). Seller's incremental borrowing rate is 6 percent. The leaseback is classified as an operating lease.
842-40-55-25 At the commencement date, Seller derecognizes the land with a carrying amount of $1 million. Seller recognizes the cash received of $2 million, a financial liability for the additional financing obtained from Buyer of $600,000, and a gain on sale of the land of $400,000. Seller also recognizes a lease liability for the leaseback at the present value of the portion of the 10 contractual leaseback payments attributable to the lease of $38,479 ($120,000 contractual lease payment – $81,521 of that lease payment that is attributable to the additional Buyer financing), discounted at the rate of 6 percent, which is $283,210, and a corresponding right-of-use asset of $283,210. The amount of $81,521 is the amount of each $120,000 annual payment that must be attributed to repayment of the principal of the financial liability for that financial liability to reduce to zero by the end of the lease term.
842-40-55-26 After initial recognition and measurement, at each period of the lease term, Seller will do both of the following:
  1. Decrease the financing obligation for the amount of each lease payment allocated to that obligation (that is, $81,521) and increase the carrying amount of the obligation for interest accrued using Seller's incremental borrowing rate of 6 percent. For example, at the end of Year 1, the balance of the financial obligation is $554,479 ($600,000 – $81,521 + $36,000).
  2. Recognize the interest expense on the financing obligation (for example, $36,000 in Year 1) and $38,479 in operating lease expense.
842-40-55-27 At the end of the lease term, the financing obligation and the lease liability equal $0.
842-40-55-28 Also, at the commencement date, Buyer recognizes the land at a cost of $1.4 million and a financial asset for the additional financing provided to Seller of $600,000. Because the lease is an operating lease, at the date of sale Buyer does not do any accounting for the lease.
842-40-55-29 In accounting for the additional financing to Seller, Buyer uses 6 percent as the applicable discount rate, which it determined in accordance with paragraphs 835-30-25-12 through 25-13. Therefore, Buyer will allocate $81,521 of each lease payment to Buyer's financial asset and allocate the remaining $38,479 to lease income. After initial recognition and measurement at each period of the lease term, Buyer will do both of the following:
  1. Decrease the financial asset for the amount of each lease payment received that is allocated to that obligation (that is, $81,521) and increase the carrying amount of the obligation for interest accrued on the financial asset using Seller's incremental borrowing rate of 6 percent. Consistent with Seller's accounting, at the end of Year 1, the carrying amount of the financial asset is $554,479 ($600,000 – $81,521 + $36,000).
  2. Recognize the interest income on the financing obligation (for example, $33,269 in Year 2) and $38,479 in operating lease income.
842-40-55-30 At the end of the lease term, the carrying amount of the financial asset is $0, and Buyer continues to recognize the land.
> > > Example 2—Accounting for a Failed Sale and Leaseback Transaction
842-40-55-31 An entity (Seller) sells an asset to an unrelated entity (Buyer) for cash of $2 million. Immediately before the transaction, the asset has a carrying amount of $1.8 million and has a remaining useful life of 21 years. At the same time, Seller enters into a contract with Buyer for the right to use the asset for 8 years with annual payments of $200,000 payable at the end of each year and no renewal options. Seller's incremental borrowing rate at the date of the transaction is 4 percent. The contract includes an option to repurchase the asset at the end of Year 5 for $800,000.
842-40-55-32 The exercise price of the repurchase option is fixed and, therefore, is not the fair value of the asset on the exercise date of the option. Consequently, the repurchase option precludes accounting for the transfer of the asset as a sale. Absent the repurchase option, there are no other factors that would preclude accounting for the transfer of the asset as a sale.
842-40-55-33 Therefore, at the commencement date, Seller accounts for the proceeds of $2 million as a financial liability and continues to account for the asset. Buyer accounts for the payment of $2 million as a financial asset and does not recognize the transferred asset. Seller accounts for its financing obligation, and Buyer accounts for its financial asset in accordance with other Topics, except that, in accordance with paragraph 842-40-30-6, Seller imputes an interest rate (4.23 percent) to ensure that interest on the financial liability is not greater than the principal payments on the financial liability over the shorter of the lease term and the term of the financing and that the carrying amount of the asset will not exceed the financial liability at the point in time the repurchase option expires (that is, at the point in time Buyer will obtain control of the asset in accordance with the guidance on satisfying performance obligations in Topic 606). Paragraph 842-40-30-6 does not apply to the buyer-lessor; therefore, Buyer recognizes interest income on its financial asset on the basis of the imputed interest rate determined in accordance with paragraphs 835-30-25-12 through 25-13, which in this case Buyer determines to be 4 percent.
842-40-55-34 During Year 1, Seller recognizes interest expense of $84,600 (4.23% × $2 million) and recognizes the payment of $200,000 as a reduction of the financial liability. Seller also recognizes depreciation expense of $85,714 ($1.8 million ÷ 21 years). Buyer recognizes interest income of $80,000 (4% × $2 million) and recognizes the payment of $200,000 as a reduction of its financial asset.
842-40-55-35 At the end of Year 1, the carrying amount of Seller's financial liability is $1,884,600 ($2 million + $84,600 – $200,000), and the carrying amount of the underlying asset is $1,714,286 ($1.8 million – $85,714). The carrying amount of Buyer's financial asset is $1,880,000 ($2 million + $80,000 – $200,000).
842-40-55-36 At the end of Year 5, the option to repurchase the asset expires, unexercised by Seller. The repurchase option was the only feature of the arrangement that precluded accounting for the transfer of the asset as a sale. Therefore, upon expiration of the repurchase option, Seller recognizes the sale of the asset by derecognizing the carrying amount of the financial liability of $1,372,077, derecognizing the carrying amount of the underlying asset of $1,371,429, and recognizing a gain of $648. Buyer recognizes the purchase of the asset by derecognizing the carrying amount of its financial asset of $1,350,041 and recognizes the transferred asset at that same amount. The date of sale also is the commencement date of the leaseback for accounting purposes. The lease term is 3 years (8 year contractual leaseback term – 5 years already passed at the commencement date). Therefore, Seller recognizes a lease liability at the present value of the 3 remaining contractual leaseback payments of $200,000, discounted at Seller's incremental borrowing rate at the contractually stated commencement date of 4 percent, which is $555,018, and a corresponding right-of-use asset of $555,018. Seller uses the incremental borrowing rate as of the contractual commencement date because that rate more closely reflects the interest rate that would have been considered by Buyer in pricing the lease.
842-40-55-37 The lease is classified as an operating lease by both Seller and Buyer. Consequently, in Year 6 and each year thereafter, Seller recognizes a single lease cost of $200,000, while Buyer recognizes lease income of $200,000 and depreciation expense of $84,378 on the underlying asset ($1,350,041 ÷ 16 years remaining useful life).
842-40-55-38 At the end of Year 6 and at each reporting date thereafter, Seller calculates the lease liability at the present value of the remaining lease payments of $200,000, discounted at Seller's incremental borrowing rate of 4 percent. Because Seller does not incur any initial direct costs and there are no prepaid or accrued lease payments, Seller measures the right-of-use asset at an amount equal to the lease liability at each reporting date for the remainder of the lease term.
> > Illustration of Guidance on Application of Costs of the Lessee Relating to the Construction or Design of an Underlying Asset
842-40-55-39 Example 3 illustrates the guidance on determining whether a lessee controls an underlying asset that is under construction before the commencement date.
> > > Example 3—Lessee Control over an Asset under Construction
842-40-55-40 Lessee and Lessor enter into a contract whereby Lessor will construct (whether itself or using subcontractors) a building to Lessee's specifications and lease that building to Lessee for a period of 20 years once construction is completed for an annual lease payment of $1,000,000, increasing by 5 percent per year, plus a percentage of any overruns above the budgeted cost to construct the building. The building is expected to have an economic life of 50 years once it is constructed. Lessee does not legally own the building and does not have a right under the contract to obtain the building while it is under construction (for example, a right to purchase the construction in process from Lessor). In addition, while the building is being developed to Lessee's specifications, those specifications are not so specialized that the asset does not have an alternative use to Lessor.
> > > > Case A—Lessee Does Not Control the Asset under Construction
842-40-55-41 Assume Lessee controls (that is, Lessee is the owner for accounting purposes) the land upon which the building will be constructed and, as part of the contract, Lessee agrees to lease the underlying land to Lessor for an initial period of 25 years. Lessor also is granted a series of six 5-year renewal options for the land lease.
842-40-55-42 None of the circumstances in paragraph 842-40-55-5 exist. Even though Lessee owns the land (whether legally or for accounting purposes only) upon which the building will be constructed, Lessor legally owns the property improvements and has rights to use the underlying land for at least substantially all of the economic life of the building. Lessee does not own the building and does not have a right under the contract to obtain the building (for example, a right to purchase the building from Lessor). In addition, the building has an alternative use to Lessor. Therefore, Lessee does not control the building under construction. Consequently, the arrangement is not within the scope of this Subtopic. Lessee and Lessor will account for the lease of the building in accordance with Subtopics 842-20 and 842-30, respectively. If Lessee incurs costs related to the construction or design of the building (for example, architectural services in developing the specifications of the building), it will account for those costs as lease payments unless the costs are for goods or services provided to Lessee, in which case Lessee will account for those costs in accordance with other Topics.
> > > > Case B—Lessee Controls the Asset under Construction
842-40-55-43 Assume Lessee leases, rather than owns, the land upon which the building will be constructed. Lessee has a 20-year lease of the underlying land and five 10-year renewal options. Therefore, Lessee's lease of the underlying land, together with the renewal options, is for at least substantially all of the economic life of the building under construction. Lessee enters into a sublease with Lessor for the right to use the underlying land for 20 years that commences upon completion of the building. The sublease has a single 10-year renewal option available to Lessor.
842-40-55-44 Lessee controls the building during the construction period and, therefore, the arrangement is within the scope of this Subtopic. Lessee and Lessor will apply the guidance in this Subtopic to determine whether this arrangement qualifies as a sale and a leaseback or whether this arrangement is, instead, a financing arrangement. Lessee controls the building during the construction period because, in accordance with paragraph 842-40-55-5(e), Lessee controls the use of the land upon which the building will be constructed for a period that is at least substantially all of the economic life of the building and the sublease entered into with Lessor does not both (a) grant Lessor the right to use the land before the beginning of construction and (b) permit Lessor to use the land for substantially all the economic life of the building (that is, the sublease, including Lessor renewal options, only is for 30 years as compared with the 50-year economic life of the building).
7. Add Subtopic 842-50, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Leases—Leveraged Lease Arrangements
Overview and Background
General
842-50-05-1 This Subtopic addresses accounting for leases that meet the definition of a leveraged lease.
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
842-50-15-1 This Subtopic addresses accounting for leases that meet the criteria in transition paragraph 842-10-65-1(z). If a lessee exercises an option to extend a lease that meets the criteria in transition paragraph 842-10-65-1(z) that it was not previously reasonably assured of exercising, the exercise of that option shall be considered a lease modification as described in paragraph 842-10-65-1(z).
Glossary
Acquiree
The business or businesses that the acquirer obtains control of in a business combination. This term also includes a nonprofit activity or business that a notfor-profit acquirer obtains control of in an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity.
Acquirer
The entity that obtains control of the acquiree. However, in a business combination in which a variable interest entity (VIE) is acquired, the primary beneficiary of that entity always is the acquirer.
Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
A transaction or other event in which a not-for-profit acquirer obtains control of one or more nonprofit activities or businesses and initially recognizes their assets and liabilities in the acquirer's financial statements. When applicable guidance in Topic 805 is applied by a not-for-profit entity, the term business combination has the same meaning as this term has for a for-profit entity. Likewise, a reference to business combinations in guidance that links to Topic 805 has the same meaning as a reference to acquisitions by not-for-profit entities.
Business
An integrated set of activities and assets that is capable of being conducted and managed for the purpose of providing a return in the form of dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly to investors or other owners, members, or participants. Additional guidance on what a business consists of is presented in paragraphs 805-10-55-4 through 55-9.
Business Combination
A transaction or other event in which an acquirer obtains control of one or more businesses. Transactions sometimes referred to as true mergers or mergers of equals also are business combinations. See also Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity.
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
The date on which a lessor makes an underlying asset available for use by a lessee. See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the commencement date.
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Delayed Equity Investment
In leveraged lease transactions that have been structured with terms such that the lessee's rent payments begin one to two years after lease inception, equity contributions the lessor agrees to make (in the lease agreement or a separate binding contract) that are used to service the nonrecourse debt during this brief period. The total amount of the lessor's contributions is specifically limited by the agreements.
Estimated Residual Value
The estimated fair value of the leased property at the end of the lease term.
Fair Value (second definition)
The price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date.
Lease
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lease Inception
The date of the lease agreement or commitment, if earlier. For purposes of this definition, a commitment shall be in writing, signed by the parties in interest to the transaction, and shall specifically set forth the principal provisions of the transaction. If any of the principal provisions are yet to be negotiated, such a preliminary agreement or commitment does not qualify for purposes of this definition.
Lease Modification
A change to the terms and conditions of a contract that results in a change in the scope of or the consideration for a lease (for example, a change to the terms and conditions of the contract that adds or terminates the right to use one or more underlying assets or extends or shortens the contractual lease term).
Lease Payments
See paragraph 842-10-30-5 for what constitutes lease payments from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Lease Term
The noncancellable period for which a lessee has the right to use an underlying asset, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor.
Legal Entity
Any legal structure used to conduct activities or to hold assets. Some examples of such structures are corporations, partnerships, limited liability companies, grantor trusts, and other trusts.
Lessee
An entity that enters into a contract to obtain the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lessor
An entity that enters into a contract to provide the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Leveraged Lease
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that was classified as a leveraged lease in accordance with the leases guidance in effect before the effective date and for which the commencement date is before the effective date.
Market Participants
Buyers and sellers in the principal (or most advantageous) market for the asset or liability that have all of the following characteristics:
  1. They are independent of each other, that is, they are not related parties, although the price in a related-party transaction may be used as an input to a fair value measurement if the reporting entity has evidence that the transaction was entered into at market terms
  2. They are knowledgeable, having a reasonable understanding about the asset or liability and the transaction using all available information, including information that might be obtained through due diligence efforts that are usual and customary
  3. They are able to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability
  4. They are willing to enter into a transaction for the asset or liability, that is, they are motivated but not forced or otherwise compelled to do so.
Minimum Lease Payments
Minimum lease payments comprise the payments that the lessee is obligated to make or can be required to make in connection with the leased property, excluding both of the following:
  1. Contingent rentals
  2. Any guarantee by the lessee of the lessor's debt and the lessee's obligation to pay (apart from the rental payments) executory costs such as insurance, maintenance, and taxes in connection with the leased property.
If the lease contains a bargain purchase option, only the minimum rental payments over the lease term and the payment called for by the bargain purchase option are required to be included in the minimum lease payments. Otherwise, minimum lease payments include all of the following:
  1. The minimum rental payments called for by the lease over the lease term.
  2. Any guarantee of the residual value at the expiration of the lease term, whether or not payment of the guarantee constitutes a purchase of the leased property or of rental payments beyond the lease term by the lessee (including a third party related to the lessee) or a third party unrelated to either the lessee or the lessor, provided the third party is financially capable of discharging the obligations that may arise from the guarantee. If the lessor has the right to require the lessee to purchase the property at termination of the lease for a certain or determinable amount, that amount is required to be considered a lessee guarantee of the residual value. If the lessee agrees to make up any deficiency below a stated amount in the lessor's realization of the residual value, the residual value guarantee to be included in the minimum lease payments is required to be the stated amount, rather than an estimate of the deficiency to be made up.
  3. Any payment that the lessee must make or can be required to make upon failure to renew or extend the lease at the expiration of the lease term, whether or not the payment would constitute a purchase of the leased property. Note that the definition of lease term includes all periods, if any, for which failure to renew the lease imposes a penalty on the lessee in an amount such that renewal appears, at lease inception, to be reasonably assured. If the lease term has been extended because of that provision, the related penalty is not included in minimum lease payments.
  4. Payments made before the beginning of the lease term. The lessee is required to use the same interest rate to accrete payments to be made before the beginning of the lease term that it uses to discount lease payments to be made during the lease term.
  5. Fees that are paid by the lessee to the owners of the special-purpose entity for structuring the lease transaction. Such fees are required to be included as part of minimum lease payments (but not included in the fair value of the leased property).
Lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property, such as machine hours of use or sales volume during the lease term, are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. However, lease payments that depend on an existing index or rate, such as the Consumer Price Index or the prime interest rate, are required to be included in minimum lease payments based on the index or rate existing at lease inception; any increases or decreases in lease payments that result from subsequent changes in the index or rate are contingent rentals and, thus, affect the determination of income as accruable.
Not-for-Profit Entity
An entity that possesses the following characteristics, in varying degrees, that distinguish it from a business entity:
  1. Contributions of significant amounts of resources from resource providers who do not expect commensurate or proportionate pecuniary return
  2. Operating purposes other than to provide goods or services at a profit
  3. Absence of ownership interests like those of business entities.
Entities that clearly fall outside this definition include the following:
  1. All investor-owned entities
  2. Entities that provide dividends, lower costs, or other economic benefits directly and proportionately to their owners, members, or participants, such as mutual insurance entities, credit unions, farm and rural electric cooperatives, and employee benefit plans.
Orderly Transaction
A transaction that assumes exposure to the market for a period before the measurement date to allow for marketing activities that are usual and customary for transactions involving such assets or liabilities; it is not a forced transaction (for example, a forced liquidation or distress sale).
Related Parties
Related parties include:
  1. Affiliates of the entity
  2. Entities for which investments in their equity securities would be required, absent the election of the fair value option under the Fair Value Option Subsection of Section 825-10-15, to be accounted for by the equity method by the investing entity
  3. Trusts for the benefit of employees, such as pension and profit-sharing trusts that are managed by or under the trusteeship of management
  4. Principal owners of the entity and members of their immediate families
  5. Management of the entity and members of their immediate families
  6. Other parties with which the entity may deal if one party controls or can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the other to an extent that one of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests
  7. Other parties that can significantly influence the management or operating policies of the transacting parties or that have an ownership interest in one of the transacting parties and can significantly influence the other to an extent that one or more of the transacting parties might be prevented from fully pursuing its own separate interests.
Underlying Asset
An asset that is the subject of a lease for which a right to use that asset has been conveyed to a lessee. The underlying asset could be a physically distinct portion of a single asset.
Variable Interest Entity
A legal entity subject to consolidation according to the provisions of the Variable Interest Entities Subsections of Subtopic 810-10.
Recognition
General
842-50-25-1 A lessor shall record its investment in a leveraged lease. The net of the balances of the following accounts as measured in accordance with this Subtopic shall represent the lessor's initial and continuing investment in leveraged leases:
  1. Rentals receivable
  2. Investment-tax-credit receivable
  3. Estimated residual value of the leased asset
  4. Unearned and deferred income.
> Leveraged Lease Acquired in a Business Combination or an Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
842-50-25-2 In a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity, the acquiring entity shall retain the classification of the acquired entity's investment as a lessor in a leveraged lease at the date of the combination. The net investment of the acquired leveraged lease shall be disaggregated into its component parts, namely net rentals receivable, estimated residual value, and unearned income including discount to adjust other components to present value.
Initial Measurement
General
842-50-30-1 A lessor shall initially measure its investment in a leveraged lease net of the nonrecourse debt (as discussed in paragraph 842-50-25-1). The net of the balances of the following accounts shall represent the initial and continuing investment in leveraged leases:
a. Rentals receivable, net of that portion of the rental applicable to principal and interest on the nonrecourse debt.
b. A receivable for the amount of the investment tax credit to be realized on the transaction.
c. The estimated residual value of the leased asset. The estimated residual value shall not exceed the amount estimated at lease inception except if the lease agreement includes a provision to escalate minimum lease payments either for increases in construction or acquisition cost of the leased property or for increases in some other measure of cost or value (such as general price levels) during the construction or preacquisition period. In that case, the effect of any increases that have occurred shall be considered in the determination of the estimated residual value of the underlying asset at lease inception.
d. Unearned and deferred income consisting of both of the following:
1. The estimated pretax lease income (or loss), after deducting initial direct costs, remaining to be allocated to income over the lease term.
2. The investment tax credit remaining to be allocated to income over the lease term.
> Leveraged Lease Acquired in a Business Combination or an Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
842-50-30-2 In a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity, the acquiring entity shall assign an amount to the acquired net investment in the leveraged lease in accordance with the general guidance in Topic 805 on business combinations, based on the remaining future cash flows and giving appropriate recognition to the estimated future tax effects of those cash flows.
Subsequent Measurement
General
> Leveraged Lease Acquired in a Business Combination or an Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
842-50-35-1 In a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity, the acquiring entity shall subsequently account for its acquired investment as a lessor in a leveraged lease in accordance with the guidance in this Subtopic as it would for any other leveraged lease.
> Income Recognition on a Leveraged Lease
842-50-35-2 The investment in leveraged leases minus deferred taxes arising from differences between pretax accounting income and taxable income shall represent the lessor's net investment in leveraged leases for purposes of computing periodic net income from the leveraged lease. Given the original investment and using the projected cash receipts and disbursements over the term of the lease, the rate of return on the net investment in the years in which it is positive shall be computed. The rate is that rate that, when applied to the net investment in the years in which the net investment is positive, will distribute the net income to those years and is distinct from the interest rate implicit in the lease. In each year, whether positive or not, the difference between the net cash flow and the amount of income recognized, if any, shall serve to increase or reduce the net investment balance. The use of the term years is not intended to preclude application of the accounting prescribed in this paragraph to shorter accounting periods.
842-50-35-3 The net income (or loss) that a lessor recognizes on a leveraged lease shall be composed of the following three elements:
  1. Pretax lease income (or loss)
  2. Investment tax credit
  3. Tax effect of pretax lease income (or loss).
842-50-35-4 The pretax lease income (or loss) and investment tax credit elements shall be allocated in proportionate amounts from the unearned and deferred income included in the lessor's net investment (as described in paragraph 842-50-30-1(d)). The tax effect of the pretax lease income (or loss) recognized shall be reflected in tax expense for the year. The tax effect of the difference between pretax accounting income (or loss) and taxable income (or loss) for the year shall be charged or credited to deferred taxes.
842-50-35-5 If, at any time during the lease term the application of the method prescribed in this Subtopic would result in a loss being allocated to future years, that loss shall be recognized immediately. This situation might arise in circumstances in which one of the important assumptions affecting net income is revised (see paragraphs 842-50-35-6 through 35-15).
> > Changes in Assumptions
842-50-35-6 Any estimated residual value and all other important assumptions affecting estimated total net income from the leveraged lease shall be reviewed at least annually. The rate of return and the allocation of income to positive investment years shall be recalculated from lease inception following the method described in paragraphs 842-50-35-2 through 35-4 and using the revised assumption if, during the lease term, any of the following conditions occur:
  1. The estimate of the residual value is determined to be excessive, and the decline in the residual value is judged to be other than temporary.
  2. The revision of another important assumption changes the estimated total net income from the lease.
  3. The projected timing of the income tax cash flows is revised.
842-50-35-7 The lessor shall update all assumptions used to calculate total and periodic income if the lessor is performing a recalculation of the leveraged lease. That recalculation shall include actual cash flows up to the date of the recalculation and projected cash flows following the date of recalculation.
842-50-35-8 The accounts constituting the net investment balance shall be adjusted to conform to the recalculated balances, and the change in the net investment shall be recognized as a gain or loss in the year in which the assumption is changed. The gain or loss shall be recognized as follows:
  1. The pretax gain or loss shall be included in income from continuing operations before income taxes in the same line item in which leveraged lease income is recognized.
  2. The tax effect of the gain or loss shall be included in the income tax line item.
  3. An upward adjustment of the estimated residual value (including any guaranteed portion) shall not be made.
842-50-35-9 The projected timing of income tax cash flows generated by the leveraged lease is an important assumption and shall be reviewed annually, or more frequently, if events or changes in circumstances indicate that a change in timing has occurred or is projected to occur. The income effect of a change in the income tax rate shall be recognized in the first accounting period ending on or after the date on which the legislation effecting a rate change becomes law.
842-50-35-10 A revision of the projected timing of the income tax cash flows applies only to changes or projected changes in the timing of income taxes that are directly related to the leveraged lease transaction. For example, a change in timing or projected timing of the tax benefits generated by a leveraged lease as a result of any of the following circumstances would require a recalculation because that change in timing is directly related to that lease:
  1. An interpretation of the tax law
  2. A change in the lessor's assessment of the likelihood of prevailing in a challenge by the taxing authority
  3. A change in the lessor's expectations about settlement with the taxing authority.
842-50-35-11 In contrast, as discussed in paragraph 842-50-35-20, a change in timing of income taxes solely as a result of an alternative minimum tax credit or insufficient taxable income of the lessor would not require a recalculation of a leveraged lease because that change in timing is not directly related to that lease. A recalculation would not be required unless there is an indication that the previous assumptions about total after-tax net income from the leveraged lease were no longer valid.
842-50-35-12 Tax positions shall be reflected in the lessor's initial calculation or subsequent recalculation on the recognition, measurement, and derecognition criteria in paragraphs 740-10-25-6, 740-10-30-7, and 740-10-40-2. The determination of when a tax position no longer meets those criteria is a matter of individual facts and circumstances evaluated in light of all available evidence.
842-50-35-13 If the lessor expects to enter into a settlement of a tax position relating to a leveraged lease with a taxing authority, the cash flows following the date of recalculation shall include projected cash flows between the date of the recalculation and the date of any projected settlement and a projected settlement amount at the date of the projected settlement.
842-50-35-14 The recalculation of income from the leveraged lease shall not include interest or penalties in the cash flows from the leveraged lease.
842-50-35-15 Advance payments and deposits made with a taxing authority shall not be considered an actual cash flow of the leveraged lease; rather, those payments and deposits shall be included in the projected settlement amount.
> Effect of Alternative Minimum Tax
842-50-35-16 An entity shall include assumptions about the effect of the alternative minimum tax, considering its consolidated tax position, in leveraged lease computations.
842-50-35-17 Any difference between alternative minimum tax depreciation and the tax depreciation assumed in the leveraged lease or between income recognition for financial reporting purposes and alternative minimum tax income could, depending on the lessor's overall tax situation, result in alternative minimum tax or the utilization of alternative minimum tax credits.
842-50-35-18 If alternative minimum tax is paid or an alternative minimum tax credit is utilized, the total cash flows from the leveraged lease could be changed and the lessor's net investment in the leveraged lease and income recognition would be affected.
842-50-35-19 If a change to the tax assumptions changes total estimated after-tax net income, the rate of return on the leveraged lease shall be recalculated from inception, the accounts constituting the lessor's net investment shall be adjusted, and a gain or loss shall be recognized in the year in which the assumption is changed.
842-50-35-20 However, an entity whose tax position frequently varies between alternative minimum tax and regular tax shall not be required to recalculate the rate of return on the leveraged lease each year unless there is an indication that the original assumptions regarding total after-tax net income from the lease are no longer valid. In that circumstance, the entity shall be required to revise the leveraged lease computations in any period in which total net income from the leveraged lease changes because of the effect of the alternative minimum tax on cash flows for the lease.
> Transfer of Minimum Rental Payments
842-50-35-21 If a lessor sells substantially all of the minimum rental payments associated with a leveraged lease and retains an interest in the residual value of the leased asset, the lessor shall not recognize increases in the value of the lease residual to its estimated value over the remaining lease term. The lessor shall report any remaining interest thereafter at its carrying amount at the date of the sale of the lease payments. If it is determined subsequently that the fair value of the residual value of the leased asset has declined below the carrying amount of the interest retained and that decline is other than temporary, the asset shall be written down to fair value, and the amount of the write-down shall be recognized as a loss. That fair value becomes the asset's new carrying amount, and the asset shall not be increased for any subsequent increase in its fair value before its sale or disposition.
Other Presentation Matters
General
842-50-45-1 For purposes of presenting the investment in a leveraged lease in the lessor's balance sheet, the amount of related deferred taxes shall be presented separately (from the remainder of the net investment). In the income statement or the notes to that statement, separate presentation (from each other) shall be made of pretax income from the leveraged lease, the tax effect of pretax income, and the amount of investment tax credit recognized as income during the period.
> Income Taxes and Leveraged Leases
842-50-45-2 Integration of the results of income tax accounting for leveraged leases with the other results of accounting for income taxes under Topic 740 on income taxes is required if deferred tax credits related to leveraged leases are the only source (see paragraph 740-10-30-18) for recognition of a tax benefit for deductible temporary differences and carryforwards not related to leveraged leases. A valuation allowance is not necessary if deductible temporary differences and carryforwards will offset taxable amounts from future recovery of the net investment in the leveraged lease. However, to the extent that the amount of deferred tax credits for a leveraged lease as determined in accordance with this Subtopic differs from the amount of the deferred tax liability related to the leveraged lease that would otherwise result from applying the guidance in Topic 740, that difference is preserved and is not a source of taxable income for recognition of the tax benefit of deductible temporary differences and operating loss or tax credit carryforwards.
842-50-45-3 This Subtopic requires that the tax effect of any difference between the assigned value and the tax basis of a leveraged lease at the date of a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity shall not be accounted for as a deferred tax credit. Any tax effects included in unearned and deferred income as required by this Subtopic shall not be offset by the deferred tax consequences of other temporary differences or by the tax benefit of operating loss or tax credit carryforwards. However, deferred tax credits that arise after the date of a combination shall be accounted for in the same manner as for leveraged leases that were not acquired in a combination.
Disclosure
General
842-50-50-1 If leveraged leasing is a significant part of the lessor's business activities in terms of revenue, net income, or assets, the components of the net investment balance in leveraged leases as set forth in paragraph 842-50-25-1 shall be disclosed in the notes to financial statements.
842-50-50-2 For guidance on disclosures about financing receivables, which include receivables relating to a lessor's rights to payments from leveraged leases, see the guidance beginning in paragraphs 310-10-50-5A, 310-10-50-27, and 310-10-50-31.
842-50-50-3 If accounting for the effect on leveraged leases of the change in tax rates results in a significant variation from the customary relationship between income tax expense and pretax accounting income and the reason for that variation is not otherwise apparent, the lessor shall disclose the reason for that variation.
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
General
> Implementation Guidance
> > Leveraged Lease Involving an Existing Asset of a Regulated Entity
842-50-55-1 Although the carrying amount of an asset acquired previously may not differ significantly from its fair value, it is unlikely that the two will be the same. However, regulated utilities have argued that the carrying amounts of certain of their assets always equal the fair value based on the utility's ability to recover that cost in conjunction with a franchise to sell a related service in a specified area. That argument is not valid when considering the value of the asset to a third-party purchaser that does not own that franchise.
> > Delayed Equity Investment
842-50-55-2 A delayed equity investment frequently obligates the lessor to make up the shortfall between rent and debt service in the first several years of the transaction. The type of recourse debt resulting from the delayed equity investment does not contradict the notion of nonrecourse and, therefore, does not preclude leveraged lease accounting as long as other requirements of leveraged lease accounting are met. The lessor's related obligation should be recorded as a liability at present value at lease inception.
842-50-55-3 Recognition of the liability would increase the lessor's net investment on which the lessor bases its pattern of income recognition. While the increase to the net investment results in an increase in income, it may be offset by the accrual of interest on the liability.
> > Income Taxes Related to Leveraged Leases
842-50-55-4 The accounting for income taxes related to leveraged leases set forth in this Subtopic is not consistent with the guidance in Topic 740 on income taxes.
842-50-55-5 The integration of the results of accounting for income taxes related to leveraged leases with the other results of accounting for income taxes as required by Topic 740 is an issue if all of the following exist:
  1. The accounting for a leveraged lease requires recognition of deferred tax credits.
  2. The guidance in Topic 740 limits the recognition of a tax benefit for deductible temporary differences and carryforwards not related to the leveraged lease.
  3. Unrecognized tax benefits in this paragraph could offset taxable amounts that result from future recovery of the net investment in the leveraged lease.
> Illustrations
> > Example 1: Lessor's Accounting for a Leveraged Lease
842-50-55-6 This Example illustrates a lessor's accounting for a leveraged lease in accordance with the guidance in this Subtopic. It also illustrates one way of meeting the disclosure requirements in paragraphs 842-50-45-1 and 842-50-50-1 as applied to a leveraged lease. The Example does not encompass all circumstances that may arise about leveraged leases; rather, the Example is based on a single instance of a leveraged lease. The elements of accounting and reporting illustrated for this Example of a leveraged lease are as follows:
a. Cash flow analysis by years (see paragraph 842-50-55-8)
b. Allocation of annual cash flow to investment and income (see paragraph 842-50-55-9)
c. Journal entries for lessor's initial investment and first year of operation (see paragraph 842-50-55-10)
d. Financial statements including notes at end of second year (see paragraph 842-50-55-11)
e. Accounting for a revision in the estimated residual value of the leased asset assumed to occur in the eleventh year of the lease (from $200,000 to $120,000):
1. Revised allocation of annual cash flow to investment and income (see paragraph 842-50-55-12)
2. Balances in investment accounts at beginning of the eleventh year before revised estimate (see paragraph 842-50-55-13)
3. Journal entries (see paragraph 842-50-55-14)
4. Adjustment of investment accounts (see paragraph 842-50-55-15).
842-50-55-7 This Example has the following terms and assumptions.
Cost of leased asset (equipment)
$1,000,000
Lease term
15 years, dating from January 1, 1975
Lease rental payments
$90,000 per year (payable last day of each year)
Residual value
$200,000 estimated to be realized 1 year after lease termination; in the eleventh year of the lease the estimate is reduced to $120,000
Financing:
Equity investment by lessor
$400,000
Long-term nonrecourse debt
$600,000, bearing interest at 9% and repayable in annual installments (on last day of each year) of $74,435.30
Depreciation allowable to lessor for income tax purposes
7-year asset depreciation range life using double-declining-balance method for the first 2 years (with the half-year convention election applied in the first year) and sum-of-years digits method for remaining life, depreciated to $100,000 salvage value
Lessor's income tax rate (federal and state)
50.4% (assumed to continue in existence throughout the term of the lease)
Investment tax credit
10% of equipment cost or $100,000 (realized by the lessor on last day of first year of lease)
Initial direct costs
For simplicity, initial direct costs have not been included in the illustration
842-50-55-8 Cash flow analysis by years follows.
842-50-55-9 Allocation of annual cash flow to investment and income follows.
842-50-55-10 Illustrative journal entries for the year ending December 31, 1975, follow.
842-50-55-11 The following are illustrative partial financial statements including notes.
The following are notes to the illustrative financial statements included in this Example.
Investment in Leveraged Leases
Entity is the lessor in a leveraged lease agreement entered into in 1975 under which mining equipment having an estimated economic life of 18 years was leased for a term of 15 years. Entity’s equity investment represented 40 percent of the purchase price; the remaining 60 percent was furnished by third-party financing in the form of long-term debt that provides for no recourse against Entity and is secured by a first lien on the property. At the end of the lease term, the equipment is turned back to Entity. The residual value at that time is estimated to be 20 percent of cost. For federal income tax purposes, Entity receives the investment tax credit and has the benefit of tax deductions for depreciation on the entire leased asset and for interest on the long-term debt. During the early years of the lease, those deductions exceed the lease rental income, and substantial excess deductions are available to be applied against Entity’s other income. In the later years of the lease, rental income will exceed the deductions and taxes will be payable. Deferred taxes are provided to reflect this reversal. Entity’s net investment in leveraged leases is composed of the following elements.
842-50-55-12 Allocation of annual cash flow to investment and income follows, revised to include new residual value estimate.
842-50-55-13 Balances in investment accounts before revised estimate of residual value follow.
842-50-55-14 Illustrative journal entries involving a reduction in residual value follow.
842-50-55-15 Adjustment of investment accounts for revised estimates of residual value follows.
> > Example 2: Income Taxes Related to a Leveraged Lease
842-50-55-16 This Example illustrates integration of the results of a lessor's income tax accounting for leveraged leases (in accordance with the guidance in this Subtopic) with the other results of accounting for income taxes as required by Topic 740.
842-50-55-17 At the end of Year 1 (the current year), an entity has two temporary differences.
842-50-55-18 The first temporary difference is for a leveraged lease that was entered into in a prior year. During Year 1, the enacted tax rate for Year 2 and thereafter changes from 40 percent to 35 percent.
842-50-55-19 After adjusting for the change in estimated total net income from the lease as a result of the change in tax rates, the components of the investment in the leveraged lease at the end of Year 1 are as follows.
842-50-55-20 The second temporary difference is a $120,000 estimated liability for warranty expense that will result in a tax deduction in Year 5 when the liability is expected to be paid. Absent consideration of the deferred tax credits attributable to the leveraged lease, the weight of available evidence indicates that a valuation allowance is needed for the entire amount of the deferred tax asset related to that $120,000 deductible temporary difference.
842-50-55-21 The tax basis of the investment in the leveraged lease at the end of Year 1 is $41,000. The amount of the deferred tax liability for that leveraged lease that would otherwise result from the application of guidance in Topic 740 on income taxes is determined as follows.
842-50-55-22 Loss carryback (to Year 2) and loss carryforward (to Year 20) of the $120,000 tax deduction for warranty expense in Year 5 would offset the $100,000 of taxable amounts resulting from future recovery of the net investment in the leveraged lease over the remainder of the lease term.
842-50-55-23 At the end of Year 1, the entity recognizes a $42,000 ($120,000 at 35 percent) deferred tax asset and a related $7,000 valuation allowance. The effect is to recognize a $35,000 net deferred tax benefit for the reduction in deferred tax credits attributable to the leveraged lease. Deferred tax credits attributable to the leveraged lease determined under the guidance in this Subtopic are $39,000. However, the deferred tax liability determined is only $35,000. The $4,000 difference is not available for offsetting.
> > Example 3: Effect of Advance Payments and Deposits on Recalculation of a Leveraged Lease
842-50-55-24 This Example illustrates how (in accordance with the guidance in paragraph 842-50-35-13 and other paragraphs) a lessor would include advance payments and deposits in a recalculation of a leveraged lease resulting from a determination by the lessor that it would enter into a settlement of a tax position arising from a leveraged lease.
842-50-55-25 This Example assumes that the lessor has concluded that the position originally taken on the tax return would meet the more-likely-than-not threshold in Subtopic 740-10 on income taxes. It also assumes that the lessor would conclude that the estimate of $50 for the projected lease-in, lease-out settlement is consistent with the measurement guidance in that Subtopic.
842-50-55-26 A lessor makes an advance payment of $25 on July 1, 2007, $10 of which is estimated to be associated with issues arising from a lease-in, lease-out transaction. On July 1, 2007, the lessor changes its assumption about the timing of the tax cash flows and projects a settlement with the Internal Revenue Service on September 1, 2009. The projected settlement would result in a payment to the taxing authority of $125 of which $50 is associated with the lease-in, lease-out transaction. On July 1, 2007, when the lessor recalculates the leveraged lease, the lessor would include a $50 cash flow on September 1, 2009, as a projected outflow in the leveraged lease recalculation.
> > Example 4: Leveraged Lease Acquired in a Business Combination or an Acquisition by a Not-for-Profit Entity
842-50-55-27 This Example illustrates one way that a lessor's investment in a leveraged lease might be valued by the acquiring entity in a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity and the subsequent accounting for the investment in accordance with the guidance in this Subtopic. The elements of accounting and reporting illustrated for this Example are as follows:
  1. Acquiring entity's cash flow analysis by years (see paragraph 842-50-55-29)
  2. Acquiring entity's valuation of investment in the leveraged lease (see paragraph 842-50-55-30)
  3. Acquiring entity's allocation of annual cash flow to investment and income (see paragraph 842-50-55-31)
  4. Journal entry for recording allocation of purchase price to net investment in the leveraged lease (see paragraph 842-50-55-32)
  5. Journal entries for the year ending December 31, 1984 (Year 10 of the lease) (see paragraph 842-50-55-33).
842-50-55-28 This Example has the following terms and assumptions.
Cost of leased asset (equipment)
$1,000,000
Lease term
15 years, dating from January 1, 1975
Lease rental payments
$90,000 per year (payable last day of each year)
Residual value
$200,000 estimated to be realized 1 year after lease termination
Financing:
Equity investment by lessor
$400,000
Long-term nonrecourse debt
$600,000, bearing interest at 9% and repayable in annual installments (on last day of each year) of $74,435.30
Depreciation allowable to lessor for income tax purposes
7-year asset depreciation range life using double-declining-balance method for the first 2 years (with the half-year convention election applied in the first year) and sum-of-years digits method for remaining life, depreciated to $100,000 salvage value
Lessor's income tax rate (federal and state)
50.4% (assumed to continue in existence throughout the term of the lease)
Investment tax credit
10% of equipment cost or $100,000 (realized by the lessor on last day of first year of lease)
Initial direct costs
For simplicity, initial direct costs have not been included in the illustration
Date of business combination
January 1, 1982
Tax status of business combination
Nontaxable transaction
Appropriate interest rate for valuing net-of-tax return on investment
4½%
842-50-55-29 Acquiring entity’s cash flow analysis by years follows.
842-50-55-30 Acquiring entity’s valuation of investment in the leveraged lease follows.
842-50-55-31 Acquiring entity’s allocation of annual cash flow to investment and income follows (see footnote (a)).
842-50-55-32 Illustrative journal entry for recording allocation of purchase price to net investment in the leveraged lease follows.
842-50-55-33 Illustrative journal entries for year ending December 31, 19Y4, follows.

Section B—Conforming Amendments Related to Leases: Amendments to the FASB Accounting Standards Codification®

Amendments to Master Glossary

8. Supersede the following Master Glossary terms, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.
  • Active Use of the Property
  • Bargain Purchase Option
  • Bargain Renewal Option
  • Capital Lease
  • Construction Period Lease Payments
  • Contingent Rentals
  • Fair Value of Leased Property
  • Heat Supply (or Burn-Up) Contracts
  • Indirectly Related to the Leased Property
  • Minor
  • Noncancelable Lease Term
  • Normal Leaseback
  • Original Lessee
  • Profit or Loss on Sale
  • Property Improvements or Integral Equipment
  • Sale-Leaseback Accounting
  • Substantially All
  • Wrap Lease Transaction
9. Amend the following Master Glossary terms, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Delayed Equity Investment
In {add glossary link}leveraged lease{add glossary link} transactions that have been structured with terms such that the {add glossary link}lessee's{add glossary link} rent payments begin one to two years after {add glossary link}lease inception{add glossary link}, equity contributions the {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link} agrees to make (in the lease agreement or a separate binding {add glossary link}contract{add glossary link}) that are used to service the nonrecourse debt during this brief period. The total amount of the lessor's contributions is specifically limited by the agreements.
Direct Financing Lease
Leases
From the perspective of a {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link}, a {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} that meets
all
none of the
conditions
criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2 but meets the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-3(b)
840-10-25-43(b)
.
Estimated
Economic Life
The estimated remaining
Either the period
during which the property
over which an asset is expected to be economically usable by one or more users or the number of production or similar units expected to be obtained from an asset by one or more users
users, with normal repairs and maintenance, for the purpose for which it was intended at lease inception, without limitation by the lease term
.
Incremental Borrowing Rate
The rate of interest that
that, at lease inception, the
a {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} would have
incurred
to pay to borrow on a collateralized basis over a similar term an amount equal
the funds necessary
to
purchase
the lease payments in a similar economic environment
leased asset. This definition does not proscribe the lessee’s use of a secured borrowing rate as its incremental borrowing rate if that rate is determinable, reasonable, and consistent with the financing that would have been used in the particular circumstances
.
Interest Cost
Interest cost includes interest recognized on obligations having explicit interest rates, interest imputed on certain types of payables in accordance with Subtopic 835-30, and interest related to a
capital lease
finance lease determined in accordance with Topic 842
Subtopic 840–30
. With respect to obligations having explicit interest rates, interest cost includes amounts resulting from periodic amortization of discount or premium and issue costs on debt.
Lease
An agreement conveying
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset)
(land and/or depreciable assets) usually
for a
stated
period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lease Term
The fixed
noncancelable lease term
plus all of the following, except as noted in the following paragraph:
The noncancellable period for which a lessee has the right to use an underlying asset, together with all of the following:
  1. Periods covered by an option to extend the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise that option
    All periods, if any, covered by
    bargain renewal options
    .
  2. Periods covered by an option to terminate the lease if the lessee is reasonably certain not to exercise that option
    All periods, if any, for which failure to renew the lease imposes a
    penalty
    on the lessee in such amount that a renewal appears, at lease inception, to be reasonably assured
  3. Periods covered by an option to extend (or not to terminate) the lease in which exercise of the option is controlled by the lessor .
    All periods, if any, covered by ordinary renewal options during which any of the following conditions exist:
    1. A guarantee by the lessee of the lessor’s debt directly or
      indirectly
      related to the leased property
      is expected to be in effect.
    2. A loan from the lessee to the lessor directly or indirectly related to the leased property is expected to be outstanding
      .
  4. All periods, if any, covered by ordinary renewal options preceding the date as of which a
    bargain purchase option
    is exercisable
  5. All periods, if any, representing renewals or extensions of the lease at the lessor’s option.
The lease term shall not be assumed to extend beyond the date a bargain purchase option becomes exercisable.
Leveraged Lease
From the perspective of a {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link}, a {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} that
meets all of the conditions in paragraph 840-10-25-43(c)
was classified as a leveraged lease in accordance with the leases guidance in effect before the effective date and for which the commencement date is before the effective date.
From the perspective of a lessor, a lease that meets conditions in paragraph 84010-25-43(c).
Minimum Lease Payments
The guidance beginning in paragraph 840-10-25-4 defines what constitutes minimum lease payments under the minimum-lease-payments criterion in paragraph 840-10-25-1(d) from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Minimum lease payments comprise the payments that the lessee is obligated to make or can be required to make in connection with the leased property, excluding both of the following:
  1. Contingent rentals
  2. Any guarantee by the lessee of the lessor’s debt and the lessee’s obligation to pay (apart from the rental payments) executory costs such as insurance, maintenance, and taxes in connection with the leased property.
If the lease contains a bargain purchase option, only the minimum rental payments over the lease term and the payment called for by the bargain purchase option are required to be included in the minimum lease payments. Otherwise, minimum lease payments include all of the following:
  1. The minimum rental payments called for by the lease over the lease term.
  2. Any guarantee of the residual value at the expiration of the lease term, whether or not payment of the guarantee constitutes a purchase of the leased property or of rental payments beyond the lease term by the lessee (including a third party related to the lessee) or a third party unrelated to either the lessee or the lessor, provided the third party is financially capable of discharging the obligations that may arise from the guarantee. If the lessor has the right to require the lessee to purchase the property at termination of the lease for a certain or determinable amount, that amount is required to be considered a lessee guarantee of the residual value. If the lessee agrees to make up any deficiency below a stated amount in the lessor’s realization of the residual value, the residual value guarantee to be included in the minimum lease payments is required to be the stated amount, rather than an estimate of the deficiency to be made up.
  3. Any payment that the lessee must make or can be required to make upon failure to renew or extend the lease at the expiration of the lease term, whether or not the payment would constitute a purchase of the leased property. Note that the definition of lease term includes all periods, if any, for which failure to renew the lease imposes a penalty on the lessee in an amount such that renewal appears, at lease inception, to be reasonably assured. If the lease term has been extended because of that provision, the related penalty is not included in minimum lease payments.
  4. Payments made before the beginning of the lease term. The lessee is required to use the same interest rate to accrete payments to be made before the beginning of the lease term that it uses to discount lease payments to be made during the lease term.
  5. Fees that are paid by the lessee to the owners of the special-purpose entity for structuring the lease transaction. Such fees are required to be included as part of minimum lease payments (but not included in the fair value of the leased property).
Lease payments that depend on a factor directly related to the future use of the leased property, such as machine hours of use or sales volume during the lease term, are contingent rentals and, accordingly, are excluded from minimum lease payments in their entirety. However, lease payments that depend on an existing index or rate, such as the Consumer Price Index or the prime interest rate, are required to be included in minimum lease payments based on the index or rate existing at lease inception; any increases or decreases in lease payments that result from subsequent changes in the index or rate are contingent rentals and, thus, affect the determination of income as accruable.
Operating Lease
From the perspective of a {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link}, any {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} other than a
capital lease
finance lease
.
From the perspective of a {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link},
a
any lease
that meets the conditions in paragraph 840-10-25-43(d)
other than a salestype lease or a direct financing lease.
Penalty
Any requirement that is imposed or can be imposed on the {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} by the {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} agreement or by factors outside the lease agreement to do any of the following:
  1. Disburse cash
  2. Incur or assume a liability
  3. Perform services
  4. Surrender or transfer an asset or rights to an asset or otherwise forego an economic benefit, or suffer an economic detriment. Factors to consider in determining whether an economic detriment may be incurred include, but are not limited to, all of the following:
    1. The uniqueness of purpose or location of the
      property
      underlying asset
    2. The availability of a comparable replacement
      property
      asset
    3. The relative importance or significance of the
      property
      underlying asset to the continuation of the lessee’s line of business or service to its customers
    4. The existence of leasehold improvements or other assets whose value would be impaired by the lessee vacating or discontinuing use of the
      leased property
      underlying asset
    5. Adverse tax consequences
    6. The ability or willingness of the lessee to bear the cost associated with relocation or replacement of the
      leased property
      underlying asset at market rental rates or to tolerate other parties using the
      leased property
      underlying asset.
Interest
Rate Implicit in the Lease
The
discount
rate of interest that, at a given date,
that
causes the aggregate present value
at the beginning of the lease term
of (a) the
minimum
{add glossary link}lease payments{add glossary link} and (b) the amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term
(as described in paragraph 840-10-25-4), excluding that portion of the payments representing executory costs to be paid by the lessor, together with any profit thereon and the unguaranteed residual value, accruing to the benefit of the lessor
to
be
equal
to
the sum of (1) the {add glossary link}fair value{add glossary link} of the underlying asset
leased property to the lessor at lease inception,
minus any related investment tax credit retained
by the lessor
and expected to be realized by
him.
the lessor and (2) any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor
If the lessor is not entitled to any excess of the amount realized on disposition of the property over a guaranteed amount, no unguaranteed residual value would accrue to its benefit
.
Sales-Type Lease
From the perspective of a {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link}, a {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} that meets
either
one or more of the
conditions
criteria in paragraph
840-10-25-43(a)
842-10-25-2.
Sublease
A transaction in which an underlying asset
a leased property
is re-leased by the
original
{add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} (or intermediate lessor ) to a third
party,
party (the sublessee) and the original (or head) {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link}
agreement
between the lessor and the lessee
two original parties
remains in effect.
10. Add the following new Master Glossary terms, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
The date on which a lessor makes an underlying asset available for use by a lessee. See paragraphs 842-10-55-19 through 55-21 for implementation guidance on the commencement date.
Consideration in the Contract
See paragraph 842-10-15-35 for what constitutes the consideration in the contract for lessees and paragraph 842-10-15-39 for what constitutes consideration in the contract for lessors.
Discount Rate for the Lease
For a lessee, the discount rate for the lease is the rate implicit in the lease unless that rate cannot be readily determined. In that case, the lessee is required to use its incremental borrowing rate.
For a lessor, the discount rate for the lease is the rate implicit in the lease.
Effective Date of the Modification
The date that a lease modification is approved by both the lessee and the lessor.
Finance Lease
From the perspective of a lessee, a lease that meets one or more of the criteria in paragraph 842-10-25-2.
Initial Direct Costs
Incremental costs of a lease that would not have been incurred if the lease had not been obtained.
Lease Liability
A lessee’s obligation to make the lease payments arising from a lease, measured on a discounted basis.
Lease Modification
A change to the terms and conditions of a contract that results in a change in the scope of or the consideration for a lease (for example, a change to the terms and conditions of the contract that adds or terminates the right to use one or more underlying assets or extends or shortens the contractual lease term).
Lease Payments
See paragraph 842-10-30-5 for what constitutes lease payments from the perspective of a lessee and a lessor.
Lease Receivable
A lessor’s right to receive lease payments arising from a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease plus any amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term to the extent that it is guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, measured on a discounted basis. Lessee
An entity that enters into a contract to obtain the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Lessor
An entity that enters into a contract to provide the right to use an underlying asset for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Net Investment in the Lease
For a sales-type lease, the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset.
For a direct financing lease, the sum of the lease receivable and the unguaranteed residual asset, net of any deferred selling profit.
Period of Use
The total period of time that an asset is used to fulfill a contract with a customer (including the sum of any nonconsecutive periods of time).
Residual Value Guarantee
A guarantee made to a lessor that the value of an underlying asset returned to the lessor at the end of a lease will be at least a specified amount.
Right-of-Use Asset
An asset that represents a lessee’s right to use an underlying asset for the lease term.
Selling Profit or Selling Loss
At the commencement date, selling profit or selling loss equals:
  1. The fair value of the underlying asset or the sum of (1) the lease receivable and (2) any lease payments prepaid by the lessee, if lower; minus
  2. The carrying amount of the underlying asset net of any unguaranteed residual asset; minus
  3. Any deferred initial direct costs of the lessor.
Short-Term Lease
A lease that, at the commencement date, has a lease term of 12 months or less and does not include an option to purchase the underlying asset that the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise.
Standalone Price
The price at which a customer would purchase a component of a contract separately.
Underlying Asset
An asset that is the subject of a lease for which a right to use that asset has been conveyed to a lessee. The underlying asset could be a physically distinct portion of a single asset.
Unguaranteed Residual Asset
The amount that a lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term that is not guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor, measured on a discounted basis.
Variable Lease Payments
Payments made by a lessee to a lessor for the right to use an underlying asset that vary because of changes in facts or circumstances occurring after the commencement date, other than the passage of time.
11. Add the following Master Glossary term to Subtopic 954-470 as follows:
Advance Refunding
A transaction involving the issuance of new debt to replace existing debt with the proceeds from the new debt placed in trust or otherwise restricted to retire the existing debt at a determinable future date or dates.

Amendments to Subtopic 205-40

12. Amend paragraph 205-40-55-3(b), with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> > Examples of Adverse Conditions and Events
205-40-55-3 The following are examples of plans that management may implement to mitigate conditions or events that raise substantial doubt about an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern. The examples are not all-inclusive. Below each example is a list of the types of information that management should consider at the date that the financial statements are issued in evaluating the feasibility of the plans to determine whether it is probable that the plan will be effectively implemented within one year after the date that the financial statements are issued.
b. Plans to borrow money or restructure debt:
  1. Availability and terms of new debt financing, or availability and terms of existing debt refinancing, such as term debt, lines of credit, or arrangements for factoring receivables or
    sale leaseback
    sale and leaseback of assets
  2. Existing or committed arrangements to restructure or subordinate debt or to guarantee loans to the entity
  3. Possible effects on management’s borrowing plans of existing restrictions on additional borrowing or the sufficiency of available collateral

Amendments to Subtopic 210-20

13. Amend paragraph 210-20-15-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Balance Sheet—Offsetting
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Other Considerations
210-20-15-3 The general principle of a right of setoff involves only two parties, and exceptions to that general principle shall be limited to practices specifically permitted by the Subtopics listed in this paragraph. Various accounting Subtopics specify accounting treatments in circumstances that result in offsetting or in a presentation in a statement of financial position that is similar to the effect of offsetting. The guidance in this Subtopic does not modify the accounting treatment in the particular circumstances prescribed by any of the following Subtopics:
a.
Paragraphs 840-30-35-32 through 35-52
Subtopic 842-50 ({add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link})
b. Subtopic 715-30 (accounting for pension plan assets and liabilities)
c. Subtopic 715-60 (accounting for plan assets and liabilities)
d. Subtopic 740-10 (net tax asset or liability amounts reported)
dd. Paragraphs 815-10-45-1 through 45-7 (derivative instruments with the right to reclaim cash collateral or the obligation to return cash collateral)
e. Subtopics 940-320 (trade date accounting for trading portfolio positions) and 910-405 (advances received on construction contracts)
f. Paragraph 942-305-45-1 (reciprocal balances with other banks).
14. Amend paragraph 210-20-60-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Relationships
> Leases
210-20-60-4 For guidance on {add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link}, see Section 842-50-35
paragraphs 840-30-35-32 through 35-52
.

Amendments to Subtopic 230-10

15. Amend paragraph 230-10-50-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Statement of Cash Flows—Overall
Disclosure
> Noncash Investing and Financing Activities
230-10-50-4 Examples of noncash investing and financing transactions are converting debt to equity; acquiring assets by assuming directly related liabilities, such as purchasing a building by incurring a mortgage to the seller; obtaining a right-of-use asset in exchange for a lease liability
an asset by entering into a capital lease
; obtaining a building or investment asset by receiving a gift; and exchanging noncash assets or liabilities for other noncash assets or liabilities.
16. Amend paragraphs 230-10-55-10 through 55-11, 230-10-55-13, 230-10-55-15, and 230-10-55-19 through 55-20, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Example 1: Direct and Indirect Method for a Manufacturing Entity
230-10-55-10 The following is a statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 19X1, for Entity A, a U.S. corporation engaged principally in manufacturing activities. This statement of cash flows illustrates the direct method of presenting cash flows from operating activities, as encouraged in paragraph 230-10-45-25.
Entity A
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
For the Year Ended December 31, 19X1
Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Cash Equivalents
230-10-55-11 The supplemental schedule of noncash investing and financing activities is as follows.
Entity A purchased all of the capital stock of Entity B for $950. In conjunction with the acquisition, liabilities were assumed as follows.
Fair value of assets acquired
Cash paid for the capital stock
Liabilities assumed
$ 1,580
(950)
$ 630
A finance
capital
lease obligation of $850 was incurred when Entity A entered into a lease for new equipment.
Additional common stock was issued upon the conversion of $500 of longterm debt.
230-10-55-12 The disclosure of accounting policy is as follows.
For purposes of the statement of cash flows, the entity considers all highly liquid debt instruments purchased with a maturity of three months or less to be cash equivalents.
230-10-55-13 The following is Entity A’s statement of cash flows for the year ended December 31, 19X1, prepared using the indirect method, as described in paragraph 230-10-45-28.
Entity A
Consolidated Statement of Cash Flows
For the Year Ended December 31, 19X1
Increase (Decrease) in Cash and Cash Equivalents
230-10-55-14 The following table illustrates the supplemental disclosures of cash flow information.
Cash paid during the year for:
Interest (net of amount capitalized)
Income taxes
$ 220
325
230-10-55-15 The supplemental schedule of noncash investing and financing activities is as follows.
Entity A purchased all of the capital stock of Entity B for $950. In conjunction with the acquisition, liabilities were assumed as follows.
Fair value of assets acquired
Cash paid for the capital stock
Liabilities assumed
$ 1,580
(950)
$ 630
A finance
capital
lease obligation of $850 was incurred when Entity A entered into a lease for new equipment.
Additional common stock was issued upon the conversion of $500 of longterm debt.
230-10-55-19 The following summarizes financial information for the current year for Entity A, which provides the basis for the statements of cash flows presented in paragraphs 230-10-55-10 through 55-18.
image of table
Entity A
Consolidated Statement of Income
For the Year Ended December 31, 19X1
Sales
$ 13,965
Cost of sales
(10,290)
Depreciation and amortization
(445)
Selling, general, and administrative expenses
(1,890)
Interest expense
(235)
Equity in earnings of affiliate
45
Gain on sale of facility
80
Interest income
55
Insurance proceeds
15
Loss from patent infringement lawsuit
(30)
Income before income taxes
1,270
Provision for income taxes
(510)
Net income
$ 760
230-10-55-20 The following transactions were entered into by Entity A during 19X1 and are reflected in the preceding financial statements:
  1. Entity A wrote off $350 of accounts receivable when a customer filed for bankruptcy. A provision for losses on accounts receivable of $200 was included in Entity A’s selling, general, and administrative expenses.
  2. Entity A collected the third and final annual installment payment of $100 on a note receivable for the sale of inventory and collected the third of four annual installment payments of $150 each on a note receivable for the sale of a plant. Interest on these notes through December 31 totaling $55 was also collected.
  3. Entity A received a dividend of $20 from an affiliate accounted for under the equity method of accounting.
  4. Entity A sold a facility with a book value of $520 and an original cost of $750 for $600 cash.
  5. Entity A constructed a new facility for its own use and placed it in service. Accumulated expenditures during the year of $1,000 included capitalized interest of $10.
  6. Entity A entered into a
    capital
    lease for new equipment with a fair value of $850. The entity classified the lease as a finance lease. Principal payments under the lease obligation totaled $125.
  7. Entity A purchased all of the capital stock of Entity B for $950 in a business combination. The fair values of Entity B’s assets and liabilities at the date of acquisition are presented below.
    Cash
    Accounts receivable
    Inventory
    Property, plant, and equipment
    Patents
    Goodwill
    Accounts payable and accrued expenses
    Long-term note payable
    Net assets acquired
    $ 25 155
    350
    900 80
    70
    (255)
    (375)
    $ 950
  8. Entity A borrowed and repaid various amounts under a line-of-credit agreement in which borrowings are payable 30 days after demand. The net increase during the year in the amount borrowed against the line-ofcredit totaled $300.
  9. Entity A issued $400 of long-term debt securities.
  10. Entity A’s provision for income taxes included a deferred provision of $150.
  11. Entity A’s depreciation of property, plant, and equipment and amortization of right-of-use assets arising from a finance lease totaled $430, and amortization of intangible assets totaled $15.
  12. Entity A’s selling, general, and administrative expenses included an accrual for incentive compensation of $50 that has been deferred by executives until their retirement. The related obligation was included in other liabilities.
  13. Entity A collected insurance proceeds of $15 from a business interruption claim that resulted when a storm precluded shipment of inventory for one week.
  14. Entity A paid $30 to settle a lawsuit for patent infringement.
  15. Entity A issued $1,000 of additional common stock of which $500 was issued for cash and $500 was issued upon conversion of long-term debt.
  16. Entity A paid dividends of $200.

Amendments to Subtopic 255-10

17. Amend the heading preceding paragraph 255-10-55-6 and paragraphs 255-10-55-8 and 255-10-55-11 and its related heading and add paragraph 255-10-55-7A and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Changing Prices—Overall
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> > > The Unguaranteed Residual Value of Property Owned by a Lessor and Leased under
Direct Financing, Sales-type, and
Leveraged Leases
255-10-55-6 The unguaranteed residual value is included with the minimum lease payments, at present value, in the net investment in the lease.
255-10-55-7 The minimum lease payments are monetary items because they are claims to fixed sums of money. The residual value is not a claim to a fixed sum of money, so it is a nonmonetary item. Some assets and liabilities, of which the net investment in the lease is a good example, are combinations of claims to (or obligations of) fixed amounts and claims to (or obligations of) variable amounts. Ideally, those claims should be separated for purposes of classifying them as monetary and nonmonetary. However, if the information necessary to make the separation is not available or is impracticable to obtain, such items need not be divided into monetary and nonmonetary components and would be classified according to their dominant element. If the net investment in leases is principally claims to fixed amounts, it would be classified as monetary; it would be classified as nonmonetary if it is principally claims to residuals.
> > > The Unguaranteed Residual Asset Arising from Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
255-10-55-7A The lease receivable arising from a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease is a monetary item because it is a claim to a fixed sum of money. The unguaranteed residual asset arising from a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease is not a claim to a fixed sum of money, so it is a nonmonetary item. Some assets and liabilities, of which the net investment in the lease is a good example, are combinations of claims to (or obligations of) fixed amounts and claims to (or obligations of) variable amounts. Because the net investment in a sales-type or direct financing lease is predominantly a claim to a fixed sum of money, it should be classified as monetary. In accordance with Subtopic 842-30, a lessor includes the unguaranteed residual asset as part of its net investment in the lease. Consequently, the unguaranteed residual asset is accounted for in the same manner as a monetary item so long as it is part of the net investment in the lease. If the lessor sells the lease receivable but retains an interest in the unguaranteed residual asset, the remaining unguaranteed residual asset is accounted for as a nonmonetary item after the sale of the lease receivable.
> > > Investment Tax Credits That Are Deferred by a Lessor as Part of the Unearned Income of a Leveraged Lease
255-10-55-8 Under paragraph
840-30-35-33
842-50-35-2, the deferred investment tax credit related to the
leased
asset
underlying asset is subtracted from rentals receivable and estimated residual value as part of the calculation of the lessor’s investment in the {add glossary link}leveraged lease{add glossary link}. The lessor’s investment in a leveraged lease, including the deferred investment tax credit related to the leveraged lease, is presented as one amount in the balance sheet. As indicated in
the preceding
paragraph 255-10-55-7, the investment in a leveraged lease would be classified as monetary or nonmonetary according to its dominant element.
255-10-55-9 As indicated in the table in paragraph 255-10-55-1, a deferred investment tax credit should be classified as nonmonetary but, if it is part of an investment in a leveraged lease and if the information necessary to separate its elements is not available or is impracticable to obtain, the investment would be classified according to its dominant element.
> > > Portion of the Carrying Amount of Lessors’ Assets Leased under
Noncancellable
Operating Leases That Represent Claims to Fixed Sums of Money
255-10-55-10 These assets are carried at depreciated historical cost under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) and are classified with or near property, plant, and equipment, which are nonmonetary.
255-10-55-11 The classification of a {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} as an operating lease under
paragraph 840-10-25-1
paragraphs 842-10-25-2 through 25-3 indicates that the lessee has not obtained control of the nonmonetary underlying asset as a result of the lease
has not transferred substantially all of the benefits and risks incident to ownership to the lessee
. Thus, the economic significance of the asset continues to depend heavily on the value of the future lease rentals, residual values, and associated costs that do not represent fixed sums of money. Therefore, an asset subject to an operating lease should be classified as nonmonetary.

Amendments to Subtopic 270-10

18. Add paragraph 270-10-50-6A and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Interim Reporting—Overall
Disclosure
> Leases
270-10-50-6A A lessor shall disclose a table of all lease-related income items in its interim financial statements (see paragraph 842-30-50-5 for lease-related income items).

Amendments to Subtopic 274-10

19. Amend paragraph 274-10-50-2(m), with a link to transition paragraph 842-1065-1, as follows:
Personal Financial Statements—Overall
Disclosure
274-10-50-2 Personal financial statements disclosures shall include, but are not limited to, all of the following:
m. Noncancellable commitments that do not have the characteristics discussed in paragraph 274-10-35-13
, for example, operating leases
.

Amendments to Subtopic 310-10

20. Amend paragraph 310-10-35-13, with a link to transition paragraph 842-1065-1, as follows:
Receivables—Overall
Subsequent Measurement
> > Loans That Are Identified for Evaluation or That Are Individually Considered Impaired
> > > Applicability
310-10-35-13 This guidance applies to all creditors. It addresses the accounting by creditors for impairment of a loan by specifying how allowances for credit losses related to certain loans shall be determined. The accounting for impaired loans shall be consistent among all creditors and for all types of lending except for loans that are measured at fair value or at the lower of cost or fair value in accordance with specialized industry practice. Therefore, this guidance applies to all loans that are identified for evaluation, uncollateralized as well as collateralized, except the following:
  1. Large groups of smaller-balance homogeneous loans that are collectively evaluated for impairment. Those loans may include but are not limited to credit card, residential mortgage, and consumer installment loans.
  2. Loans that are measured at fair value or at the lower of cost or fair value, for example, in accordance with Topic 948 or other specialized industry practice.
  3. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 201602.
    Leases as defined in Topic 840.
  4. Debt securities as defined in Topic 320.
This guidance does not address when a creditor should record a direct write-down of an impaired loan, nor does it address how a creditor should assess the overall adequacy of the allowance for credit losses.
21. Amend paragraph 310-10-40-5, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-651, as follows:
Derecognition
Acquisition, Development, and Construction Arrangements
310-10-40-5 If a financial institution was the seller of the property at the initiation of the project, the entity shall apply the guidance in paragraphs 360-10-40-3A through 40-3B. However, if the sale is part of a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction, gain recognition, if any, should be determined by reference to
Section 360-20-40
Subtopic 842-40.
22. Amend paragraph 310-10-55-14, with a link to transition paragraph 842-1065-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Meaning of Financing Receivable
310-10-55-13 This implementation guidance addresses the meaning of the term financing receivable.
310-10-55-14 All of the following are examples of financing receivables:
  1. Loans
  2. Trade accounts receivable
  3. Notes receivable
  4. Credit cards
  5. Receivables relating to a lessor’s right(s) to payment(s) from a leveraged lease
    lease other than an operating lease
    that should be recognized as an asset
    assets
    in accordance with paragraph 842-10-65-1(z)
    the following paragraphs:
    1. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
      Paragraph 840-30-25-8 (for leveraged leases)
    2. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
      Paragraph 840-30-25-7 (for direct financing leases)
      3. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
      Paragraph 840-30-25-6 (for sales-type leases).
  6. Lease receivables arising from sales-type leases or direct financing leases.

Amendments to Subtopic 310-20

23. Amend paragraph 310-20-15-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Receivables—Nonrefundable Fees and Other Costs
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Entities
310-20-15-1 The guidance in this Subtopic applies to entities as follows:
  1. All paragraphs apply to both lenders and purchasers.
  2. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    Paragraphs 310-20-25-2 through 25-3 and 310-20-35-2 through 35-3
    and the definition of
    direct loan origination costs
    apply to lessors in
    determining the net amount of initial direct costs as that term is used in
    Topic 840.

Amendments to Subtopic 310-30

24. Amend paragraph 310-30-15-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Receivables—Loans and Debt Securities Acquired with Deteriorated Credit Quality
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
310-30-15-2 The guidance in this Subtopic applies to all loans with evidence of deterioration of credit quality since origination acquired by completion of a transfer for which it is probable, at acquisition, that the investor will be unable to collect all contractually required payments receivable, except for any of the following:
  1. Loans that are measured at fair value if all changes in fair value are included in earnings or, for an NFP, loans that are measured at fair value if all changes in fair value are included in the statement of activities and included in the performance indicator if a performance indicator is presented. Examples include those loans classified as trading securities under Topic 320 and Subtopic 948-310.
  2. Mortgage loans classified as held for sale under paragraph 948-310-35-1.
  3. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    Leases as defined in Topic 840. Only contracts that are classified by the purchaser as leases under that Topic meet this exclusion. The distinction between purchasing a lease and purchasing a stream of cash flows must be drawn to determine applicability of this Section.
  4. Loans acquired in a business combination accounted for at historical cost, including business combinations of two or more NFPs, the acquisition of a for-profit business entity by an NFP, and combinations of two or more mutual entities.
  5. Loans held by liquidating banks (financial reporting by liquidating banks is discussed in Topic 942).
  6. Revolving credit agreements, such as credit cards and home equity loans, if at the acquisition date the borrower has revolving privileges.
  7. Loans that are a transferor’s interests (see Subtopic 325-40).

Amendments to Subtopic 310-40

25. Amend paragraph 310-40-15-11(a), with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Receivables—Troubled Debt Restructurings by Creditors
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Other Considerations
> > Troubled Debt Restructuring
310-40-15-11 For purposes of this Subtopic, none of the following are considered troubled debt restructurings:
a. Lease modifications
Changes in lease agreements
(for guidance, see Topic 842
840
)

Amendments to Subtopic 323-740

26. Amend paragraph 323-740-25-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Investments—Equity Method and Joint Ventures—Income Taxes
Recognition
Qualified Affordable Housing Project Investments
323-740-25-3 A liability shall be recognized for delayed equity contributions that are unconditional and legally binding. A liability also shall be recognized for equity contributions that are contingent upon a future event when that contingent event becomes probable. Topic 450 and paragraph 842-50-55-2
840-30-55-15
provide additional guidance on the accounting for delayed equity contributions.

Amendments to Subtopic 340-10

27. Amend paragraph 340-10-60-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Other Assets and Deferred Costs—Overall
Relationships
> Receivables
340-10-60-1 For accounting for nonrefundable fees and costs associated with lending, committing to lend, or purchasing a group of loans
and for accounting for fees and initial direct costs associated with leasing
, see Subtopic 310-20.

Amendments to Subtopic 360-10

28. Amend paragraph 360-10-05-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Property, Plant, and Equipment—Overall
Overview and Background
General
360-10-05-1 The Property, Plant, and Equipment Topic includes the following
Subtopics
Subtopic:
  1. Overall
  2. Real Estate Sales—Sale-Leaseback Accounting.
    Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
29. Amend paragraph 360-10-15-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Scope and Scope Exceptions
Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets
> Transactions
360-10-15-4 The guidance in the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Subsections applies to the following transactions and activities:
  1. Except as indicated in (b) and the following paragraph, all of the transactions and activities related to recognized long-lived assets of an entity to be held and used or to be disposed of, including:
    1. Right-of-use assets of lessees
      Capital leases of lessees
    2. Long-lived assets of lessors subject to operating leases
    3. Proved oil and gas properties that are being accounted for using the successful-efforts method of accounting
    4. Long-term prepaid assets.
  2. The following transactions and activities related to assets and liabilities that are considered part of an asset group or a disposal group:
    1. If a long-lived asset (or assets) is part of a group that includes other assets and liabilities not covered by the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Subsections, the guidance in the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Subsections applies to the group. In those situations, the unit of accounting for the long-lived asset is its group. For a long-lived asset or assets to be held and used, that group is referred to as an asset group. For a long-lived asset or assets to be disposed of by sale or otherwise, that group is referred to as a disposal group. Examples of liabilities included in a disposal group are legal obligations that transfer with a long-lived asset, such as certain environmental obligations, and obligations that, for business reasons, a potential buyer would prefer to settle when assumed as part of a group, such as warranty obligations that relate to an acquired customer base.
    2. The guidance in the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Subsections does not change generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) applicable to those other individual assets (such as accounts receivable and inventory) and liabilities (such as accounts payable, long-term debt, and asset retirement obligations) not covered by the Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets Subsections that are included in such groups.
30. Amend paragraph 360-10-30-8, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-651, as follows:
Initial Measurement
> Other Asset Acquisition Concepts
> > Accounting for Leases
360-10-30-8 See Subtopic
840-30
842-20 for guidance related to assets acquired under a
capital
lease.
31. Amend paragraph 360-10-40-2 and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Derecognition
> Sale of Leased
Property
Assets
360-10-40-2
Paragraph 840-20-40-5 states that if a sale to a third party of property subject to an operating lease (or of property that is leased by or intended to be leased by the third-party purchaser to another party) is not to be recorded as a sale the entity has not transferred control over the promised asset to the third party in accordance with paragraph 606-10-25-30, the transaction shall be accounted for as a borrowing.
To determine when an asset subject to a lease shall be derecognized, an entity shall apply the following paragraphs in Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers:
  1. Paragraphs 606-10-25-1 through 25-8 on the existence of a contract
  2. Paragraph 606-10-25-30 on when an entity satisfies a performance obligation by transferring control of an asset.
32. Amend paragraph 360-10-55-43, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[Note: Paragraph 360-10-45-9 is shown for context.]
Other Presentation Matters
Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets
> Long-Lived Assets Classified as Held for Sale
> > Initial Criteria for Classification as Held for Sale
360-10-45-9 A long-lived asset (disposal group) to be sold shall be classified as held for sale in the period in which all of the following criteria are met:
  1. Management, having the authority to approve the action, commits to a plan to sell the asset (disposal group).
  2. The asset (disposal group) is available for immediate sale in its present condition subject only to terms that are usual and customary for sales of such assets (disposal groups). (See Examples 5 through 7 [paragraphs 360-10-55-37 through 55-41], which illustrate when that criterion would be met.)
  3. An active program to locate a buyer and other actions required to complete the plan to sell the asset (disposal group) have been initiated.
  4. The sale of the asset (disposal group) is probable, and transfer of the asset (disposal group) is expected to qualify for recognition as a completed sale, within one year, except as permitted by paragraph 360-10-45-11. (See Example 8 [paragraph 360-10-55-43], which illustrates when that criterion would be met.) The term probable refers to a future sale that is likely to occur.
  5. The asset (disposal group) is being actively marketed for sale at a price that is reasonable in relation to its current fair value. The price at which a long-lived asset (disposal group) is being marketed is indicative of whether the entity currently has the intent and ability to sell the asset (disposal group). A market price that is reasonable in relation to fair value indicates that the asset (disposal group) is available for immediate sale, whereas a market price in excess of fair value indicates that the asset (disposal group) is not available for immediate sale.
  6. Actions required to complete the plan indicate that it is unlikely that significant changes to the plan will be made or that the plan will be withdrawn.
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
Impairment or Disposal of Long-Lived Assets
> Illustrations
> > Example 8: Proposed Disposition Not Expected to Qualify as Completed Sale
360-10-55-43 This Example illustrates the classification as held for sale of a long-lived asset (disposal group) in accordance with the criterion in paragraph 360-10-45-9(d). The following illustrates situations in which that criterion would not be met:
  1. An entity that is a commercial leasing and finance company is holding for sale or lease equipment that has recently come off lease and the ultimate form of a future transaction (sale or lease) has not yet been determined.
  2. An entity commits to a plan to sell an asset that is in use and lease back that asset; however,
    a property that is in use, and
    the transfer of the
    property
    asset will not be accounted for as a sale and leaseback transaction because the buyer-lessor does not obtain control of the asset based on the guidance in paragraphs 842-40-25-1 through 25-3
    saleleaseback through which the seller-lessee will retain more than a minor portion of the use of the property
    . The
    property
    asset would continue to be classified as held and used following the appropriate guidance in Sections 360-10-35, 360-10-45, and 360-10-50.
    If at the date of the saleleaseback the fair value of the property is less than its undepreciated cost, a loss would be recognized immediately up to the amount of the difference between undepreciated cost and fair value in accordance with paragraphs 840-40-25-3(c) and 840-40-30-3.

Amendments to Subtopic 360-20

33. Supersede Subtopic 360-20, Property, Plant, and Equipment—Real Estate Sales, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.
[On the effective date of the amendments in FASB Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (Topic 606), the title of Subtopic 360-20 will be amended as follows: Property, Plant, and Equipment—Real Estate Sales—Sale-Leaseback Accounting.]

Amendments to Subtopic 410-20

34. Amend paragraphs 410-20-15-2 through 15-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Asset Retirement and Environmental Obligations—Asset Retirement Obligations
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
410-20-15-2 The guidance in this Subtopic applies to the following transactions and activities:
  1. Legal obligations associated with the retirement of a tangible long-lived asset that result from the acquisition, construction, or development and (or) the normal operation of a long-lived asset, including any legal obligations that require disposal of a replaced part that is a component of a tangible long-lived asset.
  2. An environmental remediation liability that results from the normal operation of a long-lived asset and that is associated with the retirement of that asset. The fact that partial settlement of an obligation is required or performed before full retirement of an asset does not remove that obligation from the scope of this Subtopic. If environmental contamination is incurred in the normal operation of a long-lived asset and is associated with the retirement of that asset, then this Subtopic will apply (and Subtopic 410-30 will not apply) if the entity is legally obligated to treat the contamination.
  3. A conditional obligation to perform a retirement activity. Uncertainty about the timing of settlement of the asset retirement obligation does not remove that obligation from the scope of this Subtopic but will affect the measurement of a liability for that obligation (see paragraph 410-20-25-10).
  4. Obligations of a {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link} in connection with an underlying asset
    leased property
    that meet the provisions in (a).
    Paragraph 840-10-25-16 requires that lease classification tests performed in accordance with the requirements of Subtopic 840-10 incorporate the requirements of this Subtopic to the extent applicable.
  5. The costs associated with the retirement of a specified asset that qualifies as historical waste equipment as defined by EU Directive 2002/96/EC. (See paragraphs 410-20-55-23 through 55-30 and Example 4 [paragraph 410-20-55-63] for illustration of this guidance.) Paragraph 410-20-55-24 explains how the Directive distinguishes between new and historical waste and provides related implementation guidance.
410-20-15-3 The guidance in this Subtopic does not apply to the following transactions and activities:
  1. Obligations that arise solely from a plan to sell or otherwise dispose of a long-lived asset covered by Subtopic 360-10.
  2. An environmental remediation liability that results from the improper operation of a long-lived asset (see Subtopic 410-30). Obligations resulting from improper operations do not represent costs that are an integral part of the tangible long-lived asset and therefore should not be accounted for as part of the cost basis of the asset. For example, a certain amount of spillage may be inherent in the normal operations of a fuel storage facility, but a catastrophic accident caused by noncompliance with an entity’s safety procedures is not. The obligation to clean up the spillage resulting from the normal operation of the fuel storage facility is within the scope of this Subtopic. The obligation to clean up after the catastrophic accident results from the improper use of the facility and is not within the scope of this Subtopic.
  3. Activities necessary to prepare an asset for an alternative use as they are not associated with the retirement of the asset.
  4. Historical waste held by private households. (The guidance in this paragraph does not pertain to an asset retirement obligation in the scope of this Subtopic.) For guidance on accounting for historical electronic equipment waste held by private households for obligations associated with Directive 2002/96/EC on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment adopted by the European Union, see Subtopic 720-40.
  5. Obligations of a {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} in connection with an underlying asset
    leased property
    , whether imposed by a {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link}
    agreement
    or by a party other than the lessor, that meet the definition of either
    minimum
    {add glossary link}lease payments{add glossary link} or variable lease payments
    contingent rentals
    in Subtopic 842-10
    paragraphs 840-10-25-4 through 25-7
    . Those obligations shall be accounted for by the lessee in accordance with the requirements of Subtopic 842-10
    840-10
    . However, if obligations of a lessee in connection with an underlying asset
    leased property
    , whether imposed by a lease
    agreement
    or by a party other than the lessor, meet the provisions in paragraph 410-20-15-2 but do not meet the definition of either
    minimum
    lease payments or variable lease payments
    contingent rentals
    in Subtopic 842-10
    paragraphs 840-10-25-4 through 25-7
    , those obligations shall be accounted for by the lessee in accordance with the requirements of this Subtopic.
  6. An obligation for asbestos removal that results from the other-thannormal operation of an asset. Such an obligation may be subject to the provisions of Subtopic 410-30.
  7. Costs associated with complying with funding or assurance provisions. Paragraph 410-20-35-9 otherwise addresses the measurement effects of funding and assurance provisions.
  8. Obligations associated with maintenance, rather than retirement, of a long-lived asset.
  9. The cost of a replacement part that is a component of a long-lived asset.
35. Amend paragraph 410-20-55-44, with a link to transition paragraph 842-1065-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Example 2: Recognition and Measurement
> > > Case D: Conditional with Low Likelihood of Enforcement
410-20-55-44 This Case illustrates a timber lease in which the {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link} has an option to require the {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} to settle an asset retirement obligation. Assume an entity enters into a five-year {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link}
agreement
that grants it the right to harvest timber on a tract of land and that agreement grants the lessor an option to require that the lessee reforest the underlying land at the end of the {add glossary link}lease term{add glossary link}. Based on past history, the lessee believes that the likelihood that the lessor will exercise that option is low. Rather, at the end of the lease, the lessor will likely accept the land without requiring reforestation. The lessee estimates that there is only a 10 percent probability that the lessor will elect to enforce reforestation. Paragraph
840-10-15-15
842-10-15-1 explains that Topic 842
840
does not apply to leases of biological assets, including timber
lease agreements concerning the rights to explore for or to exploit
natural resources
such as timber
.

Amendments to Subtopic 420-10

36. Amend paragraph 420-10-05-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations—Overall
Overview and Background
420-10-05-2 Those costs include, but are not limited to, the following:
  1. Involuntary employee termination benefits pursuant to a one-time benefit arrangement that, in substance, is not an ongoing benefit arrangement or an individual deferred compensation contract
  2. Costs to terminate a contract that is not a
    capital
    {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link}
  3. Other associated costs, including costs to consolidate or close facilities and relocate employees.
37. Amend paragraph 420-10-15-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
420-10-15-3 The guidance in the Exit or Disposal Cost Obligations Topic applies to the following transactions and activities:
  1. Termination benefits provided to current employees that are involuntarily terminated under the terms of a benefit arrangement that, in substance,
    is not an ongoing benefit arrangement or an individual deferred compensation contract (referred to as one-time employee termination benefits)
  2. Costs to terminate a contract that is not a
    capital
    {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} (see paragraphs 420-10-25-11 through 25-13 for further description of contract termination costs and paragraph
    842-20-40-1
    840-30-40-1
    for terminations of a
    capital
    lease)
  3. Costs to consolidate facilities or relocate employees
  4. Costs associated with a disposal activity covered by Subtopic 205-20
  5. Costs associated with an exit activity, including exit activities associated with an entity newly acquired in a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity.
38. Amend paragraph 420-10-25-11, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Recognition
> Contract Termination Costs
420-10-25-11 For purposes of this Subtopic, costs to terminate
an operating lease or other
a contract (excluding leases within the scope of Topic 842) are either of the following:
  1. Costs to terminate the contract before the end of its term
  2. Costs that will continue to be incurred under the contract for its remaining term without economic benefit to the entity.
39. Supersede paragraph 420-10-30-8, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Initial Measurement
> Contract Termination Costs
420-10-30-8 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
If the contract is an operating lease, the fair value of the liability at the
ceaseuse date
shall be determined based on the remaining lease rentals, adjusted for the effects of any prepaid or deferred items recognized under the lease, and reduced by estimated sublease rentals that could be reasonably obtained for the property, even if the entity does not intend to enter into a sublease. Remaining lease rentals shall not be reduced to an amount less than zero.
40. Supersede paragraphs 420-10-55-11 through 55-15 and their related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Example 4: Costs to Terminate an Operating Lease
420-10-55-11 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
This Example illustrates the guidance in paragraphs 420-10-25-11 through 25-13 and paragraphs 420-10-30-7 through 30-9 related to terminating an operating lease at the
cease-use date
and after the cease-use date.
420-10-55-12 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
An entity leases a facility under an operating lease that requires the entity to pay lease rentals of $100,000 per year for 10 years. After using the facility for five years, the entity commits to an exit plan. In connection with that plan, the entity will cease using the facility in 1 year (after using the facility for 6 years), at which time the remaining lease rentals will be $400,000 ($100,000 per year for the remaining term of 4 years). In accordance with paragraphs 420-10-30-7 through 30-9, a liability for the remaining lease rentals, reduced by actual (or estimated) sublease rentals, would be recognized and measured at its fair value at the cease-use date (as illustrated in the following paragraph). In accordance with paragraphs 420-10-35-1 through 35-4, the liability would be adjusted for changes, if any, resulting from revisions to estimated cash flows after the cease-use date, measured using the credit-adjusted risk-free rate that was used to measure the liability initially (as illustrated in paragraph 420-10-55-15).
420-10-55-13 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
Based on market rentals for similar leased property, the entity determines that if it desired, it could sublease the facility and receive sublease rentals of $300,000 ($75,000 per year for the remaining lease term of 4 years). However, for competitive reasons, the entity decides not to sublease the facility (or otherwise terminate the lease) at the cease-use date. The fair value of the liability at the cease-use date is $89,427, estimated using an expected present value technique. The expected net cash flows of $100,000 ($25,000 per year for the remaining lease term of 4 years) are discounted using a credit-adjusted risk-free rate of 8 percent. In this case, a risk premium is not considered in the present value measurement. Because the lease rentals are fixed by contract and the estimated sublease rentals are based on market prices for similar leased property for other entities having similar credit standing as the entity, there is little uncertainty in the amount and timing of the expected cash flows used in estimating fair value at the cease-use date and any risk premium would be insignificant. In other circumstances, a risk premium would be appropriate if it is significant. Thus, a liability (expense) of $89,427 would be recognized at the cease-use date.
420-10-55-14 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
Accretion expense would be recognized after the cease-use date in accordance with the guidance beginning in paragraph 420-10-35-1 and in paragraph 420-10-45-5. (The entity will recognize the impact of deciding not to sublease the property over the period the property is not subleased. For example, in the first year after the cease-use date, an expense of $75,000 would be recognized as the impact of not subleasing the property, which reflects the annual lease payment of $100,000 net of the liability extinguishment of $25,000.)
420-10-55-15 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
At the end of one year, the competitive factors referred to above are no longer present. The entity decides to sublease the facility and enters into a sublease. The entity will receive sublease rentals of $250,000 ($83,333 per year for the remaining lease term of 3 years), negotiated based on market rentals for similar leased property at the sublease date. The entity adjusts the carrying amount of the liability at the sublease date to $46,388 to reflect the revised expected net cash flows of $50,000 ($16,667 per year for the remaining lease term of 3 years), which are discounted at the credit-adjusted risk-free rate that was used to measure the liability initially (8 percent). Accretion expense would be recognized after the sublease date in accordance with the guidance beginning in paragraph 420-10-35-1 and in paragraph 420-10-45-5.

Amendments to Subtopic 440-10

41. Amend paragraphs 440-10-25-1 through 25-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Commitments—Overall
Recognition
Unconditional Purchase Obligations
440-10-25-1 Depending on its terms, an unconditional purchase obligation can be subject to the guidance in Topic 842
840
, to the guidance in Topic 815, or to neither.
440-10-25-2 The guidance in Section 842-10-15
840-10-15 and paragraph 840-10-55-26
shall be applied first to determine whether an unconditional purchase obligation is within the scope of Topic
840
842.
42. Amend paragraphs 440-10-50-1 and 440-10-50-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Disclosure
General
440-10-50-1 Notwithstanding more explicit disclosures required elsewhere in this Codification, all of the following situations shall be disclosed in financial statements:
  1. Unused letters of credit
  2. Leases
    Long-term leases
    (see Section 842-20-50
    Sections 840-10-50,
    840-20-50, and 840-30-50
    )
  3. Assets pledged as security for loans
  4. Pension plans (see Section 715-20-50)
  5. The existence of cumulative preferred stock dividends in arrears
  6. Commitments, including:
    1. A commitment for plant acquisition
    2. An obligation to reduce debts
    3. An obligation to maintain working capital
    4. An obligation to restrict dividends.
Unconditional Purchase Obligations
440-10-50-3 Future
minimum
{add glossary link}lease payments{add glossary link} under {add glossary link}leases{add glossary link} that meet the conditions in paragraph 440-10-50-2 need not be disclosed in accordance with
the
following
paragraph 440-10-50-4 or paragraph 440-10-50-6 if those future
minimum
lease payments are disclosed in accordance with Section 842-20-50
the
Lessees Subsections of Sections 840-10-50; 840-20-50; and 840-30-50
.
43. Amend paragraphs 440-10-60-12 through 60-13, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Relationships
> Leases
440-10-60-12 For commitments under leases
lease
agreements
, see Topic 842
840
.
440-10-60-13 For nuclear fuel leases structured as take-or-pay contracts, see paragraph
840-10-55-7
842-10-55-1.

Amendments to Subtopic 450-10

44. Amend paragraph 450-10-60-8, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Contingencies—Overall
Relationships
> Leases
450-10-60-8 For variable lease payments
contingent rentals
, see paragraphs 842-20-55-1 through 55-2
paragraph 840-10-25-35
.

Amendments to Subtopic 450-20

45. Amend paragraphs 450-20-60-15 through 60-16, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Contingencies—Loss Contingencies
Relationships
> Leases
450-20-60-15 For variable lease payments
contingent rent
, see paragraphs 842-20-55-1 through 55-2
paragraph 840-10-25-35
.
450-20-60-16 For the classification effects of a provision in a lease that requires lessee indemnifications for environmental contamination caused by the lessee during its use of the property, see paragraph
840-10-25-12
842-10-55-15.

Amendments to Subtopic 450-30

46. Amend paragraph 450-30-60-5, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Contingencies—Gain Contingencies
Relationships
> Leases
450-30-60-5 For a lessor’s accounting for income from variable lease payments
contingent rental income
, see paragraphs 842-30-25-2 (for sales-type leases), 842-30-25-9 (for direct financing leases), and 842-30-25-11 (for operating leases)
paragraph 840-10-50-5
.

Amendments to Subtopic 460-10

47. Amend paragraph 460-10-15-7, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Guarantees—Overall
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
> > Transactions That Are Excluded from the Scope of This Topic
460-10-15-7 The guidance in this Topic does not apply to the following types of guarantee contracts:
  1. A guarantee or an indemnification that is excluded from the scope of Topic 450 (see paragraph 450-20-15-2—primarily employment-related guarantees)
  2. A lessee’s guarantee of the residual value of the
    leased property
    underlying asset at the expiration of the lease term under Topic 842
    , if the lessee (guarantor) accounts for the lease as a capital lease under Subtopic 840-30
  3. A contract that meets the characteristics in paragraph 460-10-15-4(a) but is accounted for as variable lease payments
    contingent rent
    under Topic 842
    Subtopic 840-30
  4. A guarantee (or an indemnification) that is issued by either an insurance entity or a reinsurance entity and accounted for under Topic 944 (including guarantees embedded in either insurance contracts or investment contracts)
  5. A contract that meets the characteristics in paragraph 460-10-15-4(a) but provides for payments that constitute a vendor rebate (by the guarantor) based on either the sales revenues of, or the number of units sold by, the guaranteed party
  6. A contract that provides for payments that constitute a vendor rebate (by the guarantor) based on the volume of purchases by the buyer (because the underlying relates to an asset of the seller, not the buyer who receives the rebates)
  7. A guarantee or an indemnification whose existence prevents the guarantor from being able to either account for a transaction as the sale
    of an asset that is related to the guarantee’s underlying or recognize in earnings the profit from that sale transaction
  8. A registration payment arrangement within the scope of Subtopic 825-20
    (see Section 825-20-15)
  9. A guarantee or an indemnification of an entity’s own future performance (for example, a guarantee that the guarantor will not take a certain future action)
  10. A guarantee that is accounted for as a credit derivative at fair value under Topic 815
  11. A sales incentive program in which a manufacturer contractually guarantees to reacquire the equipment at a guaranteed price or guaranteed prices at a specified time, or at specified time periods (for example, the entity is obligated to reacquire the equipment or the entity is obligated at the customer’s request to reacquire the equipment). That program shall be evaluated in accordance with Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers, specifically the implementation guidance on repurchase agreements in paragraphs 606-10-55-66 through 55-78. For related implementation guidance, see Section 460-10-55.
48. Amend paragraph 460-10-25-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-651, as follows:
Recognition
460-10-25-1 The following types of guarantees are not subject to the recognition provisions of this Subsection:
  1. A guarantee that is accounted for as a derivative instrument at fair value under Topic 815.
  2. A product warranty or other guarantee for which the underlying is related to the performance (regarding function, not price) of nonfinancial assets that are owned by the guaranteed party (see paragraph 460-1015-9 for related guidance).
  3. A guarantee issued in a business combination or an acquisition by a not-for-profit entity that represents contingent consideration (as addressed in Subtopics 805-30 and 958-805).
  4. A guarantee for which the guarantor’s obligation would be reported as an equity item rather than a liability under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) (see Topics 480 and 505).
  5. A guarantee by an original {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} that has become secondarily liable under a new {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} that relieved the original lessee from being the primary obligor (that is, principal debtor) under the original lease, as discussed in paragraph
    840-30-40-5
    842-20-40-3. This exception shall
    not be applied by analogy to other secondary obligations
    that are not accounted for under that paragraph
    .
  6. A guarantee issued either between parents and their subsidiaries or between corporations under common control.
  7. A parent’s guarantee of its subsidiary’s debt to a third party (whether the parent is a corporation or an individual).
  8. A subsidiary’s guarantee of the debt owed to a third party by either its parent or another subsidiary of that parent.
49. Amend paragraph 460-10-30-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Initial Measurement
> Fair Value Objective
460-10-30-2 Except as indicated in paragraphs 460-10-30-3 through 30-4, the objective of the initial measurement of a guarantee liability is the fair value of the guarantee at its inception. For example:
  1. If a guarantee is issued in a standalone arm’s-length transaction with an unrelated party, the liability recognized at the inception of the guarantee shall be the premium received or receivable by the guarantor as a practical expedient.
  2. If a guarantee is issued as part of a transaction with multiple elements with an unrelated party (such as in conjunction with selling an asset
    or entering into an operating lease
    ), the liability recognized at the inception of the guarantee should be an estimate of the guarantee’s fair value. In that circumstance, a guarantor shall consider what premium would be required by the guarantor to issue the same guarantee in a standalone arm’s-length transaction with an unrelated party as a practical expedient.
  3. If a guarantee is issued as a contribution to an unrelated party, the liability recognized at the inception of the guarantee shall be measured at its fair value, consistent with the requirement to measure the contribution made at fair value, as prescribed in Section 720-25-30. For related implementation guidance, see paragraph 460-10-55-14.
50. Amend paragraphs 460-10-55-17 and 460-10-55-23, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Scope Guidance—Guarantees Outside the Scope of This Topic Entirely > > > Guarantees That Prevent Sale Accounting
460-10-55-17 The following
are examples of contracts
is an example of a contract that
are
is outside the scope of this Topic because
they are
it is of the type described in paragraph 460-10-15-7(g):
  1. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    A seller’s guarantee of the return of a buyer's investment or return on investment of a real estate property as discussed in paragraph 360-2040-41 for real estate sale-leaseback transactions.
  2. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    A seller’s guarantee of a specified level of operations of a real estate property, as discussed in paragraphs 360-20-40-42 through 40-44 for real estate sale-leaseback transactions.
  3. A transaction that involves sale of a marketable security to a third-party buyer with the buyer having an option to put the security back to the seller at a specified future date or dates for a fixed price, if the existence of the put option prevents the transferor from accounting for the transaction as a sale, as described in paragraphs 860-20-55-20 through 55-23.
  4. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    A seller-lessee’s residual value guarantee if that guarantee results in the seller-lessee deferring profit from the sale greater than or equal to the gross amount of the guarantee (see paragraphs 840-40-55-26 through 55-28).
  5. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 201409.
> > Recognition and Measurement Guidance—Overall Guidance
460-10-55-23 Although paragraph 460-10-25-4 does not prescribe a specific account, the following illustrate a guarantor’s offsetting entries when it recognizes the liability at the inception of the guarantee:
  1. If the guarantee were issued in a standalone transaction for a premium, the offsetting entry would be consideration received (such as cash or a receivable).
  2. If the guarantee were issued in conjunction with the sale of assets, a product, or a business, the overall proceeds (such as the cash received or receivable) would be allocated between the consideration being remitted to the guarantor for issuing the guarantee and the proceeds from the sale. That allocation would affect the calculation of the gain or loss on the sale transaction.
  3. If the guarantee were issued in conjunction with the formation of a partially owned business or a venture accounted for under the equity method, the recognition of the liability for the guarantee would result in an increase to the carrying amount of the investment.
  4. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    If a residual value guarantee were provided by a lessee-guarantor when entering into an operating lease, the offsetting entry (representing a payment in kind made by the lessee when entering into the operating lease) would be reflected as prepaid rent, which would be accounted for under Section 840-20-25.
  5. If a guarantee were issued to an unrelated party for no consideration on a standalone basis (that is, not in conjunction with any other transaction or ownership relationship), the offsetting entry would be to expense.
51. Amend paragraphs 460-10-60-3, 460-10-60-16 through 60-18, 460-10-60-20 through 60-24, and 460-10-60-32 and supersede paragraphs 460-10-60-19, 460-10-60-25 through 60-27, 460-10-60-29 through 60-31, and 460-10-60-33, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Relationships
> Property, Plant, and Equipment
460-10-60-3 For a seller’s guarantee of a return of the buyer’s investment in real estate or a seller’s guarantee of a return on that investment for an extended period, see
paragraph 360-20-40-41
Subtopic 842-40 for
real estate sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transactions.
> Leases
460-10-60-16 For the effect on the {add glossary link}lease term{add glossary link} of a provision or condition that in substance is a guarantee of a {add glossary link}lessor’s{add glossary link} debt or a loan to a lessor by the {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} that is related to the underlying asset
leased property
but is structured in such a manner that it does not represent a direct guarantee or loan, see the definition of {remove glossary link}lease term{remove glossary link}.
460-10-60-17 For the effects on
minimum
{add glossary link}lease payments{add glossary link} of a guarantee by the lessee of the lessor’s debt, see paragraph 842-10-30-6
840-10-25-5
.
460-10-60-18 For the effects on
minimum
lease payments of a guarantee by the lessee of the residual value of the
leased property
underlying asset at the expiration of the lease term, see paragraphs
840-10-25-6 and 840-10-55-8 through 5510
842-10-30-5 and 842-10-55-34 through 55-36.
460-10-60-19 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For allocation of a residual value or first-loss guarantee to minimum lease payments in leases involving land and building(s), see paragraphs 840-10-25-21 through 25-22.
460-10-60-20 For a determination of whether a residual value guarantee is subject to the requirements of Topic 815, see paragraph
840-10-15-20
842-10-15-43.
460-10-60-21 For
the classification of a lease that includes
a commitment by a lessor to guarantee performance of the
leased property
underlying asset in a manner more extensive than a typical product warranty or to effectively protect the lessee from obsolescence of the
leased property
underlying asset, see paragraphs
840-10-25-42 through 25-43
842-10-55-32 through 55-33.
460-10-60-22 For a manufacturer’s guarantee of the resale value of equipment to the purchaser, see paragraphs
840-10-55-12 through 55-25
842-30-55-1 through 55-15.
460-10-60-23 For a lessee’s indemnification for environmental contamination, see paragraph
840-10-25-13
842-10-55-15.
460-10-60-24 For a guarantee by a lessee of the
leased property’s
underlying asset’s residual value in a
an operating
lease transaction, see
paragraph 840-2030-1
paragraphs 842-10-30-5 and 842-10-55-34 through 55-36.
460-10-60-25 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For a guarantee by a lessee of the leased property’s residual value in a capital lease transaction, see Section 840-30-35.
460-10-60-26 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For classification of a lease that contains an entity’s unsecured guarantee of its own lease payments, see paragraph 840-40-25-15.
460-10-60-27 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For classification of a lease that contains an unsecured guarantee of the lease payments of one member of a consolidated group by another member of the consolidated group, see paragraph 840-40-25-16.
460-10-60-28 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2012-04.
460-10-60-29 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For an indemnification or guarantee of an owner-lessor against third-party claims relating to construction completion in a sale-leaseback transaction, see paragraph 840-40-55-9.
460-10-60-30 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For an indemnification or guarantee of an owner-lessor against third-party damage claims other than claims caused by or resulting from the lessee’s own actions or failures to act while in possession or control of the construction project in a sale-leaseback transaction, see paragraph 840-40-55-15.
460-10-60-31 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For an indemnification or guarantee by the seller-lessee to a party other than the owner-lessor in a sale-leaseback transaction, see paragraph 840-40-55-15.
460-10-60-32 For a guarantee by the seller-lessee of the
leased property’s
underlying asset’s residual value in a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction, see paragraph
840-40-55-26
842-40-55-19.
460-10-60-33 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
For the effect of providing an independent third-party guarantee of the lease payments in a sale-leaseback transaction, see paragraph 840-40-25-14.

Amendments to Subtopic 470-10

52. Amend paragraph 470-10-60-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Debt—Overall
Relationships
> Leases
470-10-60-4 For guidance on the classification of obligations under
capital
{add glossary link}leases{add glossary link}, see paragraphs
840-30-45-1 through 45-3
842-20-45-1 through 45-4.

Amendments to Subtopic 470-60

53. Amend paragraph 470-60-15-11, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Debt—Troubled Debt Restructurings by Debtors
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Other Considerations
> > Troubled Debt Restructuring
470-60-15-11 For purposes of this Subtopic, none of the following are considered troubled debt restructurings:
  1. Lease modifications
    Changes in lease agreements
    (for guidance, see
    Topic 842
    840
    )
  2. Changes in employment-related agreements, for example, pension plans and deferred compensation contracts
  3. Unless they involve an agreement between debtor and creditor to restructure, neither of the following:
    1. Debtors’ failures to pay trade accounts according to their terms
    2. Creditors’ delays in taking legal action to collect overdue amounts of interest and principal.

Amendments to Subtopic 606-10

54. Amend paragraph 606-10-15-2(a), with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Revenue from Contracts with Customers—Overall
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
606-10-15-2 An entity shall apply the guidance in this Topic to all contracts with customers, except the following:
a. Lease contracts within the scope of Topic 842
840
, Leases.
55. Amend paragraphs 606-10-55-68, 606-10-55-72, and 606-10-55-407, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Repurchase Agreements
> > > A Forward or a Call Option
606-10-55-68 If an entity has an obligation or a right to repurchase the asset (a forward or a call option), a customer does not obtain control of the asset because the customer is limited in its ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the asset even though the customer may have physical possession of the asset. Consequently, the entity should account for the contract as either of the following:
  1. A {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} in accordance with Topic 842
    840
    on leases, if the entity can or must repurchase the asset for an amount that is less than the original selling price of the asset unless the contract is part of a sale and leaseback
    sale-leaseback
    transaction. If the contract is part of a sale and leaseback
    sale-leaseback
    transaction, the entity should account for the contract as a financing arrangement and not as a sale and leaseback transaction
    sale-leaseback
    in accordance with Subtopic 842-40
    840-40
    .
  2. A financing arrangement in accordance with paragraph 606-10-55-70, if the entity can or must repurchase the asset for an amount that is equal to or more than the original selling price of the asset.
> > > A Put Option
606-10-55-72 If an entity has an obligation to repurchase the asset at the customer’s request (a put option) at a price that is lower than the original selling price of the asset, the entity should consider at contract inception whether the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise that right. The customer’s exercising of that right results in the customer effectively paying the entity consideration for the right to use a specified asset for a period of time. Therefore, if the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise that right, the entity should account for the agreement as a lease in accordance with Topic 842
840
on leases unless the contract is part of a sale and leaseback
saleleaseback
transaction. If the contract is part of a sale and leaseback
sale-leaseback
transaction, the entity should account for the contract as a financing arrangement and not as a sale and leaseback transaction
sale-leaseback
in accordance with Subtopic 842-40
840-40
.
> Illustrations
> > Repurchase Agreements
> > > Example 62—Repurchase Agreements
> > > > Case B—Put Option: Lease
606-10-55-405 Instead of having a call option, the contract includes a put option that obliges the entity to repurchase the asset at the customer’s request for $900,000 on or before December 31, 20X7. The market value is expected to be $750,000 on December 31, 20X7.
606-10-55-406 At the inception of the contract, the entity assesses whether the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise the put option, to determine the accounting for the transfer of the asset (see paragraphs 606-10-5572 through 55-78). The entity concludes that the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise the put option because the repurchase price significantly exceeds the expected market value of the asset at the date of repurchase. The entity determines there are no other relevant factors to consider when assessing whether the customer has a significant economic incentive to exercise the put option. Consequently, the entity concludes that control of the asset does not transfer to the customer because the customer is limited in its ability to direct the use of, and obtain substantially all of the remaining benefits from, the asset.
606-10-55-407 In accordance with paragraphs 606-10-55-72 through 55-73, the entity accounts for the transaction as a lease in accordance with Topic 842
840
on leases.

Amendments to Subtopic 610-10

56. Amend paragraph 610-10-05-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Other Income—Overall
Overview and Background
610-10-05-1 The Other Income Topic specifies standards of financial accounting and reporting for income recognized that is not in a contract with a customer within the scope of Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers, other Topics (such as Topic 842
840
on leases and Topic 944 on insurance), or in accordance with other revenue or income recognition guidance.

Amendments to Subtopic 610-20

57. Amend paragraph 610-20-15-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Other Income—Gains and Losses from the Derecognition of Nonfinancial Assets
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Other Considerations
610-20-15-3 The guidance in this Subtopic does not apply to the following:
  1. The derecognition of a nonfinancial asset, including an in substance nonfinancial asset, in a contract with a customer, see Topic 606 on revenue from contracts with customers
  2. The derecognition of a subsidiary or group of assets that constitutes a business or nonprofit activity (excluding an in substance nonfinancial asset), see Section 810-10-40 on consolidation
  3. Real estate sale-
    leaseback
    Sale and leaseback transactions, see
    Subtopics 360-20 and 840-40
    Subtopic 842-40 on leases
  4. A conveyance of oil and gas mineral rights, see Subtopic 932-360 on extractive activities
  5. A transfer of a nonfinancial asset to another entity in exchange for a noncontrolling ownership interest in that entity, see the guidance on exchanges of a nonfinancial asset for a noncontrolling ownership interest in Section 845-10-30.

Amendments to Subtopic 740-10

58. Amend paragraph 740-10-25-3(c), with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Income Taxes—Overall
Recognition
740-10-25-2 Other than the exceptions identified in the following paragraph, the following basic requirements are applied in accounting for income taxes at the date of the financial statements:
  1. A tax liability or asset shall be recognized based on the provisions of this Subtopic applicable to tax positions, in paragraphs 740-10-25-5 through 25-17, for the estimated taxes payable or refundable on tax returns for the current and prior years.
  2. A deferred tax liability or asset shall be recognized for the estimated future tax effects attributable to temporary differences and carryforwards.
740-10-25-3 The only exceptions in applying those basic requirements are:
c. The pattern of recognition of after-tax income for {add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link} or the allocation of the purchase price in a purchase business combination to acquired leveraged leases as required by Subtopic 842-50
840-30
59. Amend paragraphs 740-10-55-156 and 740-10-55-158, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Example 20: Interaction of Loss Carryforwards and Temporary Differences
740-10-55-156 This Example illustrates the guidance in paragraph 740-10-55-37 for the interaction of loss carryforwards and temporary differences that will result in net deductible amounts in future years. This Example has the following assumptions:
  1. The financial loss and the loss reported on the tax return for an entity’s first year of operations are the same.
  2. In Year 2, a gain of $2,500 from a transaction that is a sale for tax purposes but does not meet the sale recognition criteria for financial reporting purposes
    a
    sale and leaseback for financial reporting
    is the only difference between pretax financial income and taxable income.
740-10-55-157 Financial and taxable income in this Example are as follows.
740-10-55-158 The $4,000 operating loss carryforward at the end of Year 1 is reduced to $1,500 at the end of Year 2 because $2,500 of it is used to reduce taxable income. The $2,500 reduction in the loss carryforward becomes $2,500 of deductible temporary differences that will reverse and result in future tax deductions when the sale occurs (that is, control of the asset transfers to the buyerlessor )
lease
payments are made
. The entity has no deferred tax liability to be offset by those future tax deductions, the future tax deductions cannot be realized by loss carryback because no taxes have been paid, and the entity has had pretax losses for financial reporting since inception. Unless positive evidence exists that is sufficient to overcome the negative evidence associated with those losses, a valuation allowance is recognized at the end of Year 2 for the full amount of the deferred tax asset related to the $2,500 of deductible temporary differences and the remaining $1,500 of operating loss carryforward.
60. Amend paragraph 740-10-60-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Relationships
> Leases
740-10-60-4 For the specific requirements for accounting for income taxes related to {add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link}, see Subtopic 842-50
840-30
.

Amendments to Subtopic 740-270

61. Amend paragraph 740-270-30-15, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Income Taxes—Interim Reporting
Initial Measurement
> Exclusion of Items from Estimated Annual Effective Tax Rate
> > Certain Tax Credits
740-270-30-15 Further, paragraphs 842-50-30-1 and 842-50-35-3 through 35-4
840-30-30-14 and 840-30-35-34 through 35-35
require that investment tax credits related to leases that are accounted for as {add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link} shall be deferred and accounted for as return on the net investment in the leveraged leases in the years in which the net investment is positive and explains that the use of the term years is not intended to preclude application of the accounting described to shorter periods. If an entity accounts for investment tax credits related to leveraged leases in accordance with those paragraphs for interim periods, those investment tax credits shall not be taken into account in estimating the annual effective tax rate.

Amendments to Subtopic 805-10

62. Amend paragraph 805-10-55-44, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Business Combinations—Overall
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Example 5: Illustration of Disclosure Requirements
805-10-55-44 Paragraph 805-20-50-1(b)
The fair value of the financial assets acquired includes receivables under
capital leases
sales-type leases or direct financing leases of data networking equipment with a fair value of $2,000. The gross amount due under the contracts is $3,100, of which $450 is expected to be uncollectible.

Amendments to Subtopic 805-20

63. Amend paragraphs 805-20-25-5, 805-20-25-8 through 25-9, 805-20-25-11 through 25-12, and 805-20-25-16 through 25-17, add paragraphs 805-20-25-10A and 805-20-25-28A through 25-28B and their related heading, and supersede paragraph 805-20-25-13, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Business Combinations—Identifiable Assets and Liabilities, and Any Noncontrolling Interest
Recognition
> Recognition Principle
> > Recognition Conditions
805-20-25-5 Paragraphs 805-20-25-11 through 25-12
25-13
provide guidance on recognizing operating leases and paragraphs 805-20-55-2 through 55-45 provide guidance on recognizing
other
intangible assets. Paragraphs 805-20-25-17 through
25-28
25-28B specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this Subtopic and Subtopic 805-740 provide limited exceptions to the recognition principle and conditions in paragraphs 805-20-25-1 through 25-3.
> > Classifying or Designating Identifiable Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed in a Business Combination
805-20-25-6 At the acquisition date, the acquirer shall classify or designate the identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed as necessary to subsequently apply other GAAP. The acquirer shall make those classifications or designations on the basis of the contractual terms, economic conditions, its operating or accounting policies, and other pertinent conditions as they exist at the acquisition date.
805-20-25-8 This Section provides the following two exceptions to the principle in paragraph 805-20-25-6:
  1. Classification of a lease of an acquiree
    contract as either an operating lease or a capital lease
    shall be in accordance with the guidance in paragraph
    840-10-25-27
    842-10-55-11.
  2. Classification of a contract written by an entity that is in the scope of Subtopic 944-10 as an insurance or reinsurance contract or a deposit contract. The acquirer shall classify
    those contracts
    that contract on the basis of the contractual terms and other factors at the inception of the contract (or, if the terms of the contract have been modified in a manner that would change its classification, at the date of that modification, which might be the acquisition date). [Content amended as shown and moved from below]
The acquirer shall classify those contracts on the basis of the contractual terms and other factors at the inception of the contract (or, if the terms of the contract have been modified in a manner that would change its classification, at the date of that modification, which might be the acquisition date).
[Content amended and moved to (b) above]
> Recognizing Particular Assets Acquired and Liabilities Assumed
805-20-25-9 Guidance on recognizing identifiable intangible assets, including
operating leases and
reacquired rights, follows.
> > Identifiable Intangible Assets
805-20-25-10 The acquirer shall recognize separately from goodwill the identifiable intangible assets acquired in a business combination. An intangible asset is identifiable if it meets either the separability criterion or the contractuallegal criterion described in the definition of identifiable. Additional guidance on applying that definition is provided in paragraphs 805-20-25-14 through 25-15, 805-20-55-2 through 55-45, and Example 1 (see paragraph 805-20-55-52). For guidance on the recognition and subsequent measurement of a defensive intangible asset, see Subtopic 350-30.
805-20-25-10A An identifiable intangible asset may be associated with a
an operating
{add glossary link}lease{add glossary link}, which may be evidenced by market participants’ willingness to pay a price for the lease even if it is at market terms. For example, a lease of gates at an airport or of retail space in a prime shopping area might provide entry into a market or other future economic benefits that qualify as identifiable intangible assets, such as a customer relationship. In that situation, the acquirer shall recognize the associated identifiable intangible asset(s) in accordance with paragraph 805-20-25-10. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 805-20-25-13]
> > Operating Leases
805-20-25-11 The acquirer shall recognize
no
assets or liabilities related to an {add glossary link}operating lease{add glossary link} in which the acquiree is the {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link}
except
as required by paragraphs
805-20-25-12 through 25-13
805-20-25-10A and 805-20-25-28A.
805-20-25-12 Regardless of whether the acquiree is the lessee or the {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link}, the acquirer shall determine whether the terms of each of an acquiree’s operating leases are favorable or unfavorable compared with the market terms of leases of the same or similar items at the acquisition date. If the acquiree is a lessor, the
The
acquirer shall recognize an intangible asset if the terms of an operating lease are favorable relative to market terms and a liability if the terms are unfavorable relative to market terms. If the acquiree is a lessee, the acquirer shall adjust the measurement of the acquired right-of-use asset for any favorable or unfavorable terms in accordance with paragraph 805-20-30-24.
805-20-25-13 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 201602.
An identifiable intangible asset may be associated with an operating lease, which may be evidenced by market participants’ willingness to pay a price for the lease even if it is at market terms. For example, a lease of gates at an airport or of retail space in a prime shopping area might provide entry into a market or other future economic benefits that qualify as identifiable intangible assets, such as a customer relationship. In that situation, the acquirer shall recognize the associated identifiable intangible asset(s) in accordance with paragraph 805-20-25-10.
[Content amended and moved to paragraph 805-20-25-10A]
> Exceptions to the Recognition Principle
805-20-25-16 This Topic provides limited exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles applicable to business combinations. Paragraphs 805-2025-17 through
25-28
25-28B specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this Subtopic provides limited exceptions to the recognition principle in paragraph 805-20-25-1. The acquirer shall apply the specified GAAP or the specified requirements rather than that recognition principle to determine when to recognize the assets or liabilities identified in paragraphs 805-20-25-17 through
25-28
25-28B. That will result in some items being recognized either by applying recognition conditions in addition to those in paragraphs 805-20-25-2 through 25-3 or by applying the requirements of other GAAP, with results that differ from applying the recognition principle and conditions in paragraphs 805-20-25-1 through 25-3.
805-20-25-17 Guidance is presented on all of the following exceptions to the recognition principle:
  1. Assets and liabilities arising from contingencies
  2. Income taxes
  3. Employee benefits
  4. Indemnification assets.
  5. Leases.
> > Leases
805-20-25-28A The acquirer shall recognize assets and liabilities arising from leases of an acquiree in accordance with Topic 842 on leases (taking into account the requirements in paragraph 805-20-25-8(a)).
805-20-25-28B For leases for which the acquiree is a lessee, the acquirer may elect, as an accounting policy election by class of underlying asset and applicable to all of the entity’s acquisitions, not to recognize assets or liabilities at the acquisition date for leases that, at the acquisition date, have a remaining lease term of 12 months or less. This includes not recognizing an intangible asset if the terms of an operating lease are favorable relative to market terms or a liability if the terms are unfavorable relative to market terms.
64. Amend paragraphs 805-20-30-10 through 30-12 and add paragraphs 805-20-30-24 through 30-25 and their related headings, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Initial Measurement
> Exceptions to the Measurement Principle
805-20-30-10 Paragraph 805-20-25-16 notes that the Business Combinations Topic provides limited exceptions to the recognition and measurement principles applicable to business combinations. Paragraphs 805-20-30-12 through 30-25
3023
specify the types of identifiable assets and liabilities that include items for which this Subtopic provides limited exceptions to the paragraph 805-20-30-1 measurement principle. The acquirer shall apply the specified GAAP or the specified requirements rather than that measurement principle to determine how to measure the assets or liabilities identified in paragraphs 805-20-30-12 through 30-25
30-23
. That will result in some items being measured at an amount other than their acquisition-date fair values.
805-20-30-11 As noted
at
in paragraph 805-20-25-17
805-20-25-16
, income taxes, employee benefits,
and
indemnification assets, and leases are also exceptions to the recognition principle in paragraph 805-20-25-1.
805-20-30-12 Guidance is presented on all of the following exceptions to the measurement principle:
  1. Income taxes
  2. Employee benefits
  3. Indemnification assets
  4. Reacquired rights
  5. Share-based payment awards
  6. Assets held for sale
  7. Certain assets and liabilities arising from contingencies.
  8. Leases.
> > Measurement of Lease Assets and Lease Liabilities Arising from Leases in Which the Acquiree Is the Lessee
805-20-30-24 For leases in which the acquiree is a lessee , the acquirer shall measure the lease liability at the present value of the remaining lease payments , as if the acquired lease were a new lease of the acquirer at the acquisition date. The acquirer shall measure the right-of-use asset at the same amount as the lease liability as adjusted to reflect favorable or unfavorable terms of the lease when compared with market terms.
> > Measurement of Assets and Liabilities Arising from Leases in Which the Acquiree Is the Lessor
805-20-30-25 For leases in which the acquiree is a lessor of a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease , the acquirer shall measure its net investment in the lease as the sum of both of the following (which will equal the fair value of the underlying asset at the acquisition date):
  1. The lease receivable at the present value, discounted using the rate implicit in the lease, of the following, as if the acquired lease were a new lease at the acquisition date:
    1. The remaining lease payments
    2. The amount the lessor expects to derive from the underlying asset following the end of the lease term that is guaranteed by the lessee or any other third party unrelated to the lessor.
  2. The unguaranteed residual asset as the difference between the fair value of the underlying asset at the acquisition date and the carrying amount of the lease receivable, as determined in accordance with (a), at that date.
The acquirer shall take into account the terms and conditions of the lease in calculating the acquisition-date fair value of an underlying asset that is subject to a sales-type lease or a direct financing lease by the acquiree-lessor.
65. Amend paragraph 805-20-35-6, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Subsequent Measurement
> Additional Guidance on Subsequent Measurement of Assets Acquired,
Liabilities Assumed or Incurred, and Any Noncontrolling Interests in a Business Combination
805-20-35-6 Leasehold improvements acquired in a business combination shall be amortized over the shorter of the useful life of the assets
or a term that includes required lease periods and renewals that are deemed to be reasonably assured (as used in the definition of
lease term
)
and the remaining lease term at the date of acquisition. However, if the lease transfers ownership of the underlying asset to the lessee, or the lessee is reasonably certain to exercise an option to purchase the underlying asset, the lessee shall amortize the leasehold improvements to the end of their useful life.
66. Amend paragraph 805-20-50-1(b), with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Disclosure
> Business Combinations Occurring during a Current Reporting Period or after the Reporting Date but before the Financial Statements Are Issued
805-20-50-1 Paragraph 805-10-50-1 identifies one of the objectives of disclosures about a business combination. To meet that objective, the acquirer shall disclose all of the following information for each business combination that occurs during the reporting period:
b. For acquired receivables not subject to the requirements of Subtopic 310-30, all of the following:
  1. The fair value of the receivables (unless those receivables arise from sales-type leases or direct financing leases by the lessor for which the acquirer shall disclose the amounts recognized as of the acquisition date)
  2. The gross contractual amounts receivable
  3. The best estimate at the acquisition date of the contractual cash flows not expected to be collected.
The disclosures shall be provided by major class of receivable, such as loans, net investment in sales-type or direct financing leases in accordance with Subtopic 842-30 on leases—lessor
840-30
, and any other class of receivables.
67. Amend paragraphs 805-20-55-2 and 805-20-55-31, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Recognition of Intangible Assets Separately from Goodwill
805-20-55-2 Paragraph 805-20-25-10 establishes that an intangible asset is identifiable if it meets either the separability criterion or the contractual-legal criterion described in the definition of identifiable. An intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion is identifiable even if the asset is not transferable or separable from the acquiree or from other rights and obligations. For example:
  1. An acquiree leases a manufacturing facility to a lessee under an {add glossary link}operating lease{add glossary link} that has terms that are favorable relative to market terms. The lease terms explicitly prohibit transfer of the {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} (through either sale or {add glossary link}sublease{add glossary link}). The amount by which the lease terms are favorable compared with the pricing of current market transactions for the same or similar items is an intangible asset that meets the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill, even though the acquirer cannot sell or otherwise transfer the lease contract. See also paragraph
    paragraphs
    805-20-25-12
    through 25-13
    .
  2. An acquiree owns and operates a nuclear power plant. The license to operate that power plant is an intangible asset that meets the contractuallegal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill, even if the acquirer cannot sell or transfer it separately from the acquired power plant. An acquirer may recognize the fair value of the operating license and the fair value of the power plant as a single asset for financial reporting purposes if the useful lives of those assets are similar.
  3. An acquiree owns a technology patent. It has licensed that patent to others for their exclusive use outside the domestic market, receiving a specified percentage of future foreign revenue in exchange. Both the technology patent and the related license agreement meet the contractual-legal criterion for recognition separately from goodwill even if selling or exchanging the patent and the related license agreement separately from one another would not be practical.
> > Examples of Intangible Assets That Are Identifiable
> > > Contract-Based Intangible Assets
805-20-55-31 Contract-based intangible assets represent the value of rights that arise from contractual arrangements. Customer contracts are one type of contractbased intangible asset. If the terms of a contract give rise to a liability (for example, if the terms of a
an operating lease or
customer contract are unfavorable relative to market terms), the acquirer recognizes it as a liability assumed in the business combination. Examples of contract-based intangible assets are:
  1. Licensing, royalty, standstill agreements #
  2. Advertising, construction, management, service or supply contracts #
  3. Lease
    Operating lease agreements of a lessor
    (whether the acquiree is the lessee or the lessor)
    #
  4. Construction permits #
  5. Franchise agreements #
  6. Operating and broadcast rights #
  7. Servicing contracts such as mortgage servicing contracts #
  8. Employment contracts #
  9. Use rights such as drilling, water, air, timber cutting, and route authorities. #

Amendments to Subtopic 805-740

68. Amend paragraph 805-740-25-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Business Combinations—Income Taxes
Recognition
805-740-25-4 Guidance on tax-related matters related to the portion of goodwill for which amortization is not deductible for tax purposes is in paragraphs 805-740-25-8 through 25-9; guidance on accounting for the acquisition of {add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link} in a business combination is in
paragraph 840-30-30-15
Subtopic 842-50; and guidance on the specific acquired temporary differences identified in paragraph 740-10-25-3(a) is referred to in that paragraph.
69. Amend paragraph 805-740-30-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Initial Measurement
805-740-30-1 An acquirer shall measure a deferred tax asset or deferred tax liability arising from the assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination in accordance with Subtopic 740-10. Discounting deferred tax assets or liabilities is prohibited for temporary differences (except for {add glossary link}leveraged leases{add glossary link}, see Subtopic 842-50
840-30
) related to business combinations as it is for other temporary differences.

Amendments to Subtopic 810-10

70. Amend paragraph 810-10-25-56, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Consolidation—Overall Recognition
> > Variable Interest and Interests in Specific Assets of a VIE
810-10-25-56 Expected losses related to variable interests in specified assets are not considered part of the expected losses of the legal entity for purposes of determining the adequacy of the equity at risk in the legal entity or for identifying the primary beneficiary unless the specified assets constitute a majority of the assets of the legal entity. For example, expected losses absorbed by a guarantor of the residual value of
leased property
underlying asset are not considered expected losses of a VIE if the fair value of the
leased property
underlying asset is not a majority of the fair value of the VIE’s total assets.
71. Amend paragraphs 810-10-50-2AD and 810-10-50-2AF, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Consolidation—Overall
Disclosure
Variable Interest Entities
> Accounting Alternative
810-10-50-2AD A private company {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} that does not apply the requirements of the Variable Interest Entities Subsections to one or more {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link} legal entities because it meets the criteria in paragraph 810-10-15-17A shall disclose the following:
  1. The amount and key terms of liabilities (for example, debt, environmental liabilities, and asset retirement obligations) recognized by the lessor legal entity that expose the private company lessee to providing financial support to the legal entity. For example, a private company lessee exposed to debt of the legal entity should disclose information such as the amount of debt, interest rate, maturity, pledged collateral, and guarantees associated with the debt.
  2. A qualitative description of circumstances (for example, certain commitments and contingencies) not recognized in the financial statements of the lessor legal entity that expose the private company lessee to providing financial support to the legal entity.
810-10-50-2AF In disclosing information about the lessor legal entity, a private company lessee shall present the disclosures in combination with the disclosures required by other guidance (for example, in Topics 460 on guarantees, 850 on related party disclosures, and 842
840
on leases). Those disclosures could be combined in a single note or by including cross-references within the notes to financial statements.
72. Amend paragraphs 810-10-55-50, 810-10-55-78 through 55-80, 810-10-55-93, and 810-10-55-172 through 55-176, and 810-10-55-178 and their related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
Variable Interest Entities
> Illustrations
> > Example 2: Calculation of Expected Losses If There Is No History of, nor Future Expectation of, Net Losses
810-10-55-50 This Example illustrates the calculation of expected losses if a legal entity has no history of net losses and expects continued profitability. This Example has the following assumptions:
  1. On January 1, 2004, Entity A is formed to purchase a building, 95 percent of which is financed by debt and 5 percent by equity. The lenders will have recourse only to the building in the event that Entity A does not make the required debt payments.
  2. On the same day, Entity B enters into a five-year-market-rate lease for the building from Entity A that includes a guarantee of a portion of the building’s residual value. The sum of the present value of the
    minimum
    {add glossary link}lease payments{add glossary link}
    , including
    and the residual value guarantee
    guarantee,
    is less than
    90 percent of
    substantially all the fair value of the building.
  3. There are no other interests in Entity A.
  4. The appropriate discount rate is assumed to be 5 percent.
> > Example 3: Determining the Variability to Be Considered
810-10-55-55 The following Cases illustrate the application of the guidance in paragraphs 810-10-25-21 through 25-36 for determining the variability to be considered in the following situations:
  1. Financial VIE primarily financed by fixed-rate debt, holding investments in longer-term fixed-rate debt (Case A)
  2. Financial VIE primarily financed by fixed-rate debt, holding investments in longer-term fixed- and variable-rate debt (with a fixed-rate swap) (Case B)
  3. Financial VIE primarily financed by fixed-rate debt, holding investments in foreign-currency-denominated debt (with a currency swap) (Case C)
  4. Financial VIE primarily financed by floating-rate debt, holding investments in fixed-rate securities (Case D)
  5. Financial VIE financed by credit-linked notes holding highly rated floatingrate investments and a credit default swap (Case E)
  6. Retail-operating VIE (Case F)
  7. Lessor VIE (direct financing lease) with single lessee (operating lease) (Case G)
  8. VIE holding both a fixed-price forward contract to buy and a fixed-price forward contract to sell electricity (Case H).
810-10-55-56 Cases A–H share all of the following assumptions:
  1. All the entities are presumed to be VIEs.
  2. All variable interests are variable interests in the VIE (as a whole) rather than variable interests in specified assets of the VIE, based on the guidance in paragraphs 810-10-25-55 through 25-59.
  3. A primary beneficiary has not been identified; however, the determination of the primary beneficiary should be made in accordance with the guidance in paragraphs 810-10-25-38A through 25-38G.
> > > Case G: Lessor VIE (Direct Financing Lease) with Single Lessee (Operating Lease)
810-10-55-78 A VIE is created and financed with $950 of 5-year fixed-rate debt and $50 of equity. The VIE uses the proceeds from the issuance to purchase
property
an underlying asset to be leased to a {add glossary link}lessee{add glossary link} with a AA credit rating. The equity provides protection (up to $50) to the debt related to both credit risk and interest rate risk because the debt is paid before any cash flows are available to the equity investors. The {add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} has a five-year term and is classified as a
directv finance v lease
direct financing lease by the {add glossary link}lessor{add glossary link} and as an {add glossary link}operating lease{add glossary link} by the lessee. The lessee is required to provide a first-loss residual value guarantee for the expected future value of the
leased v property
underlying asset at the end of five years, and it has a fixed-price purchase option to acquire the underlying asset
property
for the same amount. A third-party residual value guarantor provides a very small additional residual value guarantee to the lessor. The governing documents for the VIE do not permit the VIE to buy additional assets or sell existing assets during the five-year holding period. The VIE was formed so that the lessee will have rights to occupy and use the
property
underlying asset under an operating lease and retain substantially all of the risks and rewards from appreciation or depreciation in value of the
leased v property
underlying asset. The transaction was marketed to potential investors as an investment in a portfolio of AA-rated assets collateralized by
leased v property
an underlying asset that would provide a fixed-rate return to debt holders equivalent to AA-rated assets. The return to equity investors is expected to be slightly greater than the return provided to the debt investors because the equity is subordinated with respect to the obligation of the lessee to the VIE. The following diagram illustrates this situation.
810-10-55-79 The VIE is exposed to the following risks:
  1. Price risk with respect to changes in fair value of the underlying
    property
    asset
  2. Credit risk associated with possible default by the lessee of the
    property
    underlying asset with respect to the lease payments
  3. Interest rate risk associated with changes in the fair value of the future lease payments.
810-10-55-80 The following factors should be considered in the determination of the purpose(s) for which the VIE was created and in the determination of the variability the VIE is designed to create and pass along to its interest holders:
  1. Although the lease payments are fixed, the VIE was not designed to be exposed to interim changes in fair value of those lease payments due to interest rate risk because the VIE is not expected to sell the
    property
    underlying asset before maturity of the fixed-rate debt.
  2. The primary purpose for which the VIE was created was to provide the lessee with use of the
    property
    underlying asset for five years with substantially all of the rights and obligations of ownership.
  3. The residual value guarantee effectively transfers substantially all of the risk associated with the underlying
    property
    asset (that is, declines in value) to the lessee. Therefore, the variability that is transferred to that interest holder is strongly indicated as variability that the VIE is designed to create and pass along to its interest holders.
  4. The fixed-price purchase option effectively transfers substantially all of the rewards from the underlying
    property
    asset (that is, increases in value) to the lessee.
  5. The VIE is designed to be exposed to the risks associated with a cumulative change in fair value of the
    leased v property
    underlying asset at
    the end of five years as well as credit risk from possible default by the lessee with regard to
    minimum
    lease payments.
  6. The VIE was marketed to potential investors as an investment in a portfolio of AA-rated assets collateralized by
    leased v property
    an underlying asset that would provide a fixed-rate return to debt holders equivalent to AA-rated assets.
  7. The role of the residual value guarantee and fixed-price purchase option in the design of the VIE, regardless of their legal form or accounting classification, dictates whether those interests shall be treated as creating risk for the VIE or absorbing risk from the VIE. Therefore, price risk with respect to changes in fair value of the underlying
    property
    asset is a relevant risk for the VIE, even though the lessor VIE records a net investment in the direct financing lease
    receivable
    , rather than the
    property
    underlying asset itself, on its balance sheet for accounting purposes.
Based on this analysis, it can be determined that the VIE was designed to create and pass along the risk in (a) in
the preceding
paragraph 810-10-55-79 to the third-party guarantor and the lessee (with respect to the residual value guarantee and fixed-price purchase option) and the risk in (b) in
the preceding
paragraph 810-10-55-79 to the note and equity holders, all of which are the VIE’s variable interest holders.
> > Example 5: Identifying a Primary Beneficiary
810-10-55-93 The following cases are provided solely to illustrate the application of the guidance in paragraphs 810-10-25-38A through 25-38J related to the identification of a primary beneficiary:
  1. Commercial mortgage-backed securitization (Case A)
  2. Asset-backed collateralized debt obligation (Case B)
  3. Structured investment vehicle (Case C)
  4. Commercial paper conduit (Case D)
  5. Guaranteed mortgage-backed securitization (Case E)
  6. Residential mortgage-backed securitization (Case F)
  7. Property v lease
    Lease entity (Case G)
  8. Collaboration—Joint venture arrangement (Case H)
  9. Furniture manufacturing entity (Case I)
  10. Investment fund 1—Annual and performance-based fees and additional interests (Case J)
  11. Investment fund 2—Annual and performance-based fees and no additional interests (Case K)
  12. eCommerce Entity (Case L).
> > > Case G:
Property
Lease Entity
810-10-55-172 A VIE is created and financed with $950 of 5-year fixed-rate debt and $50 of equity. The VIE uses the proceeds from the issuance to purchase
property
an asset to be leased to a lessee with an AA credit rating. The equity is subordinate to the debt because the debt is paid before any cash flows are available to the equity investors. The lease has a five-year term and is classified as a direct
finance
financing lease by the lessor and as an operating lease by the lessee. The lessee, however, is considered the owner of the
property
underlying asset for tax purposes and, thus, receives tax depreciation benefits.
810-10-55-173 The lessee is required to provide a first-loss residual value guarantee for the expected future value of the
leased v property
underlying asset at the end of five years (the option price) up to a specified percentage of the option price, and it has a fixed-price purchase option to acquire the
property
underlying asset for the option price. If the lessee does not exercise the fixed-price purchase option at the end of the lease term, the lessee is required to remarket the
property
underlying asset on behalf of the VIE. If the
property
underlying asset is sold for an amount less than the option price, the lessee is required to pay the VIE the difference between the option price and the sales proceeds, which is not to exceed a specified percentage of the option price. If the
property
underlying asset is sold for an amount greater than the option price, the lessee is entitled to the excess of the sales proceeds over the option price. A third-party residual value guarantor provides a very small additional residual value guarantee to the lessor VIE, which allows the lessor to achieve direct financing lease treatment.
810-10-55-174 The governing documents for the VIE do not permit the VIE to buy additional assets or sell existing assets during the five-year holding period, and the terms of the lease agreement and the governing documents for the VIE do not provide the equity holders with the power to direct any activities of the VIE. The VIE was formed so that the lessee would have rights to use the
property
underlying asset under an operating lease and would retain substantially all of the risks and rewards from appreciation or depreciation in value of the
leased property
underlying asset.
810-10-55-175 The transaction was marketed to potential investors as an investment in a portfolio of AA-rated assets collateralized by
leased v property
an underlying asset that is leased that would provide a fixed-rate return to debt holders equivalent to AA-rated assets. The return to equity investors is expected to be slightly greater than the return to the debt investors because the equity is subordinated to the debt.
810-10-55-176 To evaluate the facts and circumstances and determine which reporting entity, if any, is the primary beneficiary of a VIE, paragraph 810-10-25-38A requires that a reporting entity determine the purpose and design of the VIE, including the risks that the VIE was designed to create and pass through to its variable interest holders. In making this assessment, the variable interest holders of the VIE determined the following:
  1. The primary purpose for which the VIE was created was to provide the lessee with use of the
    property
    underlying asset for five years with substantially all of the rights and obligations of ownership, including tax benefits.
  2. The VIE was marketed to potential investors as an investment in a portfolio of AA-rated assets collateralized by
    leased v property
    an underlying asset that is leased that would provide a fixed-rate return to debt holders equivalent to AA-rated assets. The return to equity investors is expected to be slightly greater than the return to the debt investors because the equity is subordinated to the debt.
  3. The residual value guarantee effectively transfers substantially all of the risk associated with the underlying
    property
    asset (that is, decreases in value) to the lessee and the fixed-price purchase option effectively transfers substantially all of the rewards from the underlying
    property
    asset (that is, increases in value) to the lessee.
  4. The VIE is designed to be exposed to the risks associated with a cumulative change in fair value of the
    leased v property
    underlying asset at the end of five years as well as credit risk related to the potential default by the lessee of its contractually required lease payments.
810-10-55-177 The debt investors, the equity investors, and the lessee are the variable interest holders in the VIE.
810-10-55-178 Paragraph 810-10-25-38B requires that a reporting entity identify which activities most significantly impact the VIE’s economic performance and determine whether it has the power to direct those activities. The economic performance of the VIE is significantly impacted by the fair value of the underlying
property
asset and the credit of the lessee. The lessee’s maintenance and operation of the
leased v property
underlying asset has a direct effect on the fair value of the underlying
property
asset, and the lessee directs the remarketing of the
property
underlying asset. The lessee also has the ability to increase the benefits it can receive and limit the losses it can suffer by the manner in which it uses the
property
underlying asset and how it remarkets the
property
underlying asset.
73. Amend paragraph 810-10-60-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Relationships
> Leases
810-10-60-4 For {add glossary link}leases{add glossary link} sold by a manufacturer to a leasing subsidiary, see paragraph
840-30-45-4
842-30-45-3.

Amendments to Subtopic 815-10

74. Amend paragraphs 815-10-15-63 and 815-10-15-79 through 15-81, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Derivatives and Hedging—Overall
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Instruments
> > Instruments Not within Scope
> > > Derivative Instruments That Impede Sale Accounting
815-10-15-63 A derivative instrument (whether freestanding or embedded in another contract) whose existence serves as an impediment to recognizing a related contract as a sale by one party or a purchase by the counterparty is not subject to this Subtopic.
For example, the existence of a guarantee of the residual value of a leased asset by the lessor may be an impediment to treating a contract as a sales-type lease, in which case the contract would be treated by the lessor as an operating lease. Another
An example is the existence of a call option enabling a transferor to repurchase transferred assets that is an impediment to sales accounting under Topic 860. Such a call option on transferred financial assets that are not readily obtainable would prevent accounting for that transfer as a sale. The consequence is that to recognize the call option would be to count the same thing twice. The holder of the option already recognizes in its financial statements the assets that it has the option to purchase.
> > > Leases
815-10-15-79 Leases that are within the scope of Topic 842
840
are not derivative instruments subject to this Subtopic, although a derivative instrument embedded in a lease may be subject to the requirements of paragraph 815-15-25-1.
> > > Residual Value Guarantees
815-10-15-80 Residual value guarantees that are subject to the requirements of Topic 842 on leases
840
are not subject to the requirements of this Subtopic.
815-10-15-81 A third-party residual value guarantor shall consider the guidance in this Subtopic for all residual value guarantees that it provides to determine whether they are derivative instruments and whether they qualify for any of the scope exceptions in this Subtopic. The guarantees described in paragraph 842-10-15-43
840-10-15-20
for which the exceptions of paragraphs 460-10-15-7(b) and 460-10-25-1(a) do not apply are subject to the initial recognition, initial measurement, and disclosure requirements of Topic 460.
75. Amend paragraph 815-10-55-60, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Scope Application to Certain Contracts
> > > Take-or-Pay Contracts
815-10-55-60 Whether a take-or-pay contract is subject to this Subtopic depends on its terms. For example, if the product to be delivered is not readily convertible to cash and there is no net settlement option, the contract fails to meet the net settlement criterion in paragraph 815-10-15-83(c) and is not subject to the requirements of this Subtopic. In certain circumstances, a take-or-pay contract may represent or contain a lease that should be accounted for in accordance with Topic 842
840
. (Paragraph 815-10-15-79 explains that leases subject to that Topic are not subject to this Subtopic.)

Amendments to Subtopic 815-15

76. Amend paragraph 815-15-25-22 and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Derivatives and Hedging—Embedded Derivatives Recognition
> > > Variable Lease Payments
Contingent Rentals
Based on a Variable Interest Rate
815-15-25-22 The obligation to make future payments for the use of leased assets and the adjustment of those payments to reflect changes in a variable-interest-rate index are considered to be clearly and closely related. Thus, leases that include variable lease payments
contingent rentals
based on changes in the prime rate would not have the
contingent-rental-related
embedded derivative that is related to the variable lease payment separated from the host contract.
77. Amend paragraphs 815-15-55-4 and 815-15-55-7 and the related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Scope—Features Involving Certain Currencies—Certain Insurance Contracts
815-15-55-4 Insurance contracts are financial instruments that are not covered by the scope exception in paragraph 815-15-15-10 that applies to nonfinancial contracts; however, that paragraph applies to this situation in which a normal insurance contract involves payment in the functional currency of either of the two parties to the contract. The insurance contracts described in this guidance
are similar to operating leases, which
are covered by the exception in paragraph 81515-15-10, because
neither contract gives
the insurance contracts do not give rise to a recognized asset or liability that would be measured under Subtopic 830-20 until an amount becomes receivable or payable under the contract. Therefore, as discussed in paragraph 815-15-15-20, the exception in paragraph 815-15-15-10 also applies to insurance contracts that involve payment of losses in the functional currency of either of the two parties to the contract.
> > Applying the Bifurcation Criteria
> > > Applying the Separate Instrument Criterion
> > > > Variable Lease Payments
Contingent Rentals
Based on Related Sales
815-15-55-7 Lease contracts that include variable lease payments
contingent rentals
based on certain sales of the lessee would not have the
contingent-rentalrelated
embedded derivative that is related to the variable lease payment separated from the host contract because, under paragraph 815-10-15-59(d), a non-exchange-traded contract whose underlying is specified volumes of sales by one of the parties to the contract would not be subject to the requirements of Subtopic 815-10.

Amendments to Subtopic 815-20

78. Amend paragraph 815-20-55-11 and supersede paragraphs 815-20-55-73 and 815-20-55-198 and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Derivatives and Hedging—Hedging—General Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> > > > Application of the Definition of Firm Commitment
815-20-55-11 A firm commitment that represents an asset or liability that a specific accounting standard prohibits recognizing (such as a lessor’s noncancellable
noncancelable
operating lease or an unrecognized mortgage servicing right) may nevertheless be designated as the hedged item in a fair value hedge.
> > > Applicability of the Shortcut Method
815-20-55-73 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 201602.
Based on paragraph 815-20-55-71(c), the shortcut method cannot be applied to a cash flow hedge of the variability in lease payments for an interest- rateindexed operating lease because that lease is not a recognized interest-bearing asset or liability. Although a capital lease is reported as a leased asset and an interest-bearing obligation under Subtopic 840-30 (and thus the shortcut method could potentially be applied to a fair value hedge of a capital lease’s exposure to interest rate risk), an operating lease is accounted for as an executory contract that is not recognized as an interest-bearing asset or liability.
> > Example 23: Use of Shortcut Method for Cash Flow Hedge of VariableRate Operating Lease
815-20-55-198 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
This Example addresses the application of the shortcut method as discussed beginning in paragraph 815-20-25-102. Assume that an entity leases property under a lease agreement that provides for rental payments indexed to changes in interest rates and accounted for as an operating lease. The payments on the lease agreement are reset quarterly based on changes in three-month LIBOR. To hedge the variability in expected future cash flows attributable to interest rate risk, the entity enters into a pay-fixed, receive-variable interest rate swap based on three-month LIBOR and designates the swap as the hedging instrument in a cash flow hedge of the variability in the lease payments. Assume that the term, notional amounts, repricing dates, and maturity on the operating lease and the interest rate swap match, and the fair value of the interest rate swap at the inception of the hedge is zero. The contract in this Example is a lease agreement with an escalation clause whose rental payments are dependent on LIBOR-based interest rate levels; the contract is not a recognized interest-bearing
financial instrument
for accounting purposes. Thus, the shortcut method cannot be applied to the operating lease in the Example.

Amendments to Subtopic 820-10

79. Amend paragraph 820-10-15-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Fair Value Measurement—Overall
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Other Considerations
> > Topics and Subtopics Not within Scope
820-10-15-2 The Fair Value Measurement Topic does not apply as follows:
  1. To accounting principles that address share-based payment transactions (this includes Subtopic 505-50 and all Subtopics in Topic 718 except for 718-40, which is within the scope of Topic 820)
  2. To Sections, Subtopics, or Topics that require or permit measurements that are similar to fair value but that are not intended to measure fair value, including both of the following:
    1. Sections, Subtopics, or Topics that permit measurements that are determined on the basis of, or otherwise use, standalone selling price
    2. Topic 330.
  3. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 201602.
    To accounting principles that address fair value measurements for purposes of lease classification or measurement in accordance with Topic 840. This scope exception does not apply to assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination or an
    acquisition by a not-for-profit entity
    that are required to be measured at fair value in accordance with Topic 805, regardless of whether those assets and liabilities are related to leases.
  4. To the recognition and measurement of revenue from contracts with customers in accordance with Topic 606
  5. To the recognition and measurement of gains and losses upon the derecognition of nonfinancial assets in accordance with Subtopic 610-20.

Amendments to Subtopic 825-10

80. Amend paragraph 825-10-15-5, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Financial Instruments—Overall
Scope and Scope Exceptions
Fair Value Option
> Instruments
825-10-15-5 No entity may elect the fair value option for any of the following financial assets and financial liabilities:
  1. An investment in a subsidiary that the entity is required to consolidate.
  2. An interest in a variable interest entity (VIE) that the entity is required to consolidate.
  3. Employers’ and plans’ obligations (or assets representing net overfunded positions) for pension benefits, other postretirement benefits (including health care and life insurance benefits), postemployment benefits, employee stock option and stock purchase plans, and other forms of deferred compensation arrangements, as defined in Topics 420; 710; 712; 715; 718; and 960.
  4. Financial assets and financial liabilities recognized under leases as defined in Subtopic 842-10
    840-10
    . (This exception does not apply to a guarantee of a third-party lease obligation or a contingent obligation arising from a cancelled lease.)
  5. Deposit liabilities, withdrawable on demand, of banks, savings and loan associations, credit unions, and other similar depository institutions.
  6. Financial instruments that are, in whole or in part, classified by the issuer as a component of shareholders’ equity (including temporary equity) (for example, a convertible debt instrument with the scope of the Cash Conversion Subsections of Subtopic 470-20 or a convertible debt security with a noncontingent beneficial conversion feature).
81. Amend paragraph 825-10-50-8, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Disclosure
> Applicability of This Subsection
> > Transactions
825-10-50-8 In part, this Subsection requires disclosures about fair value for all financial instruments, whether recognized or not recognized in the statement of financial position, except that the disclosures about fair value prescribed in paragraphs 825-10-50-10 through 50-16 are not required for any of the following:
  1. Employers’ and plans’ obligations for pension benefits, other postretirement benefits including health care and life insurance benefits, postemployment benefits, employee stock option and stock purchase plans, and other forms of deferred compensation arrangements (see
    Topics 710, 712, 715, 718, and 960)
  2. Substantively extinguished debt subject to the disclosure requirements of
    Subtopic 405-20
  3. Insurance contracts, other than financial guarantees (including financial guarantee insurance contracts within the scope of Topic 944) and investment contracts, as discussed in Subtopic 944-20
  4. Lease contracts as defined in Topic 842
    840
    (a contingent obligation arising out of a cancelled lease and a guarantee of a third-party lease obligation are not lease contracts and are subject to the disclosure requirements in this Subsection)
  5. Warranty obligations (see Topic 450 and the Product Warranties Subsections of Topic 460)
  6. Unconditional purchase obligations as defined in paragraph 440-10-50-2
  7. Investments accounted for under the equity method in accordance with the requirements of Topic 323
  8. Noncontrolling interests and equity investments in consolidated subsidiaries (see Topic 810)
  9. Equity instruments issued by the entity and classified in stockholders’ equity in the statement of financial position (see Topic 505)
  10. Receive-variable, pay-fixed interest rate swaps for which the simplified hedge accounting approach is applied (see Topic 815)
  11. Fully benefit-responsive investment contracts held by an employee benefit plan
  12. Investments in equity securities accounted for under the measurement guidance for equity securities without readily determinable fair values (see Topic 321)
  13. Trade receivables and payables due in one year or less
  14. Deposit liabilities with no defined or contractual maturities.

Amendments to Topic 840

82. Supersede Topic 840, Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.

Amendments to Subtopic 845-10

83. Supersede paragraph 845-10-30-20 and its related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Nonmonetary Transactions—Overall
Initial Measurement
Barter Credit Transactions
> Transfers of Operating Leases for Barter Credits
845-10-30-20 Paragraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
If an exchange involves the transfer or assumption of an operating lease for barter credits, impairment of that lease shall be measured as the amount of the remaining lease costs (discounted rental payments and unamortized leasehold improvements) in excess of the discounted amount of probable sublease rentals for the remaining lease term.

Amendments to Subtopic 853-10

84. Amend paragraph 853-10-25-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Service Concession Arrangements—Overall
Recognition
> The Operating Entity’s Rights over the Infrastructure
853-10-25-2 The infrastructure that is the subject of a service concession arrangement within the scope of this Topic shall not be recognized as property, plant, and equipment of the operating entity. Service concession arrangements within the scope of this Topic are not within the scope of Topic
840
842 on leases
,
as indicated in paragraph 840-10-15-9A
.

Amendments to Subtopic 860-10

85. Amend paragraph 860-10-15-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Transfers and Servicing—Overall
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
860-10-15-4 The guidance in this Topic does not apply to the following transactions and activities:
  1. Except for transfers of servicing assets (see Section 860-50-40) and for the transfers noted in the following paragraph, transfers of nonfinancial assets
  2. Transfers of unrecognized financial assets, for example,
    minimum
    lease payments to be received under operating leases
  3. Transfers of custody of financial assets for safekeeping
  4. Contributions (for guidance on accounting for contributions, see Subtopic 958-605)
  5. Transfers of ownership interests that are in substance sales of nonfinancial assets (For guidance related to transfers of investments that are in substance a sale of a nonfinancial asset, see Subtopic 610-20. For guidance related to sale and leaseback
    sale-leaseback
    transactions involving real estate, including real estate with equipment, such as manufacturing facilities, power plants, and office buildings with furniture and fixtures, see Subtopic
    840-40
    842-40 on sale and leaseback transactions.)
  6. Investments by owners or distributions to owners of a business entity
  7. Employee benefits subject to the provisions of Topic 712
  8. Leveraged leases subject to Topic 842
    840
  9. Money-over-money and wrap lease transactions involving nonrecourse debt subject to Topic
    840
    842.
86. Amend paragraphs 860-10-55-5 through 55-6 and the related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Scope
> > > Application of the Term Financial Asset
860-10-55-5 The following implementation guidance addresses whether certain instruments are financial assets, the transfer of which is subject to the guidance in this Subtopic, specifically:
  1. Minimum lease payments and guaranteed residual values under certain leases
    Lease receivables from sales-type leases and direct financing leases
  2. Securitized stranded costs
  3. Judgment from litigation
  4. Forward contract on a financial instrument
  5. Ownership interest in a consolidated subsidiary by its parent if the subsidiary holds nonfinancial assets
  6. Investment in a nonconsolidated investee.
> > > >
Minimum Lease Payments and Guaranteed Residual Values under Certain Leases
Lease Receivables from Sales-Type and Direct Financing Leases
860-10-55-6 Lease receivables from sales- type
Sales-type
and direct financing leases
receivables secured by leased equipment, referred to as gross investment
in lease receivables,
are made up of two components:
minimum
the right to receive lease payments and guaranteed residual values.
Minimum lease
Lease payments for sales-type and direct financing leases involve
are
requirements for lessees to pay cash to lessors and meet the definition of a financial asset.
Thus, transfers of
minimum lease payments are subject to the requirements of this Subtopic.
Residual values represent the lessor’s estimate of the salvage value of the
leased equipment
underlying asset at the end of the lease term and may be either guaranteed or unguaranteed. Residual values meet the definition of financial assets to the extent that they are guaranteed at the
inception
commencement of the lease. Thus, transfers of
residual values guaranteed at inception also
are
lease receivables from sales-type and direct financing leases are subject to the requirements of this Subtopic. {add glossary link}Unguaranteed residual
values
assets {add glossary link} do not meet the definition of financial assets, nor do residual values guaranteed after commencement
inception
, and transfers of them are not subject to the requirements of this Subtopic.

Amendments to Subtopic 860-20

87. Amend paragraphs 860-20-55-1, 860-20-55-26 through 55-27 and their related heading, and 860-20-55-58 through 55-59 and their related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Transfers and Servicing—Sales of Financial Assets Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
860-20-55-1 The following is implementation guidance related to the guidance in this Subtopic, specifically:
  1. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-16
  2. Estimating the fair value of certain beneficial interests
  3. Accrued interest receivable
  4. Options embedded in transferred securities
  5. Credit risk associated with transferred assets
  6. Transfer of a bond purchased at a premium
  7. Sales or securitizations of lease
    financing
    receivables
  8. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2009-16
  9. Forward contracts in revolving-period securitizations
  10. Subsequent measurement of interests issued in securitization transactions
  11. Transferor regains control of assets through a removal-of-accounts provision.
> > Sales or Securitizations of Lease
Financing
Receivables
860-20-55-26 A transferor of lease
financing
receivables shall allocate the gross investment in receivables between
minimum
{add glossary link}lease payments{add glossary link}, residual values guaranteed at
inception
commencement, and residual values not guaranteed at
inception
commencement using the individual carrying amounts of those components at the date of transfer. Those transferors also shall record a servicing asset or liability in accordance with Subtopic 860-50, if appropriate.
860-20-55-27 See paragraph 860-10-55-6 for further discussion of lease
financing
receivables.
> Illustrations
> > Example 5: Transfer of Lease
Financing
Receivables with Residual Values
860-20-55-58 This Example illustrates the guidance in paragraph 860-20-25-1. At the beginning of the second year in a 10-year sales-type lease, Entity E transfers for $505 a nine-tenths participating interest in the
minimum
lease
payments
receivable to an independent third party, and the transfer is accounted for as a sale. Entity E retains a one-tenth participating interest in the
minimum
lease
payments
receivable and a 100 percent interest in the unguaranteed residual asset
value
of leased equipment
, which is not subject to the requirements of this Subtopic as discussed in paragraph 860-10-55-6 because it is not a financial asset and, therefore, is excluded from the analysis of whether the transfer of the ninetenths participating interest in the
minimum
lease
payments
receivable meets the definition of a participating interest. The servicing asset has a fair value of zero because Entity E estimates that the benefits of servicing are just adequate to compensate it for its servicing responsibilities. The carrying amounts and related gain computation are as follows.
Carrying Amounts
860-20-55-59 The following journal entry is made by Entity E.

Amendments to Subtopic 908-360

88. Amend paragraph 908-360-55-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Airlines—Property, Plant, and Equipment
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Purchase Incentives
908-360-55-1 Credit received as a purchase incentive from an aircraft manufacturer to induce a purchase of that manufacturer’s aircraft should be accounted for in accordance with paragraphs 705-20-25-1 through 25-5 for the aircraft that is owned or, if the aircraft is leased, as a lease incentive in accordance with Topic 842
or under a capital lease, or, in the case of an aircraft under an operating lease, amortized over the life of the related aircraft
.

Amendments to Subtopic 954-470

89. Amend paragraph 954-470-25-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Health Care Entities—Debt
Recognition
> Financing Authorities
954-470-25-1 When a financing authority issues tax-exempt bonds or similar debt instruments and uses the proceeds for the benefit of a health care entity, the obligation shall be reported as a liability in the entity’s balance sheet if the health care entity is responsible for repayment. In some cases, this obligation may take the form of a liability arising from a
capital
lease. If a health care entity has no obligation to make payments of principal and interest on the debt or
capital or operating
lease payments on related buildings or equipment, the entity shall not reflect the liability on its balance sheet. In such circumstances, proceeds from the bond issue shall be reported as contributions from the sponsoring entity.
90. Amend paragraph 954-470-40-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Derecognition
954-470-40-1 In a crossover refunding, because the old bonds are not defeased until the crossover date, no immediate gain or loss shall be recognized. If the retirement dates of the old debt have been established, the call premium, unamortized premium or discount, and initial issue costs shall be recognized systematically in the income statement over the remaining life of the old debt as an adjustment of the cost of borrowing related to the old debt. In addition, the income earned on the funds used to consummate the {add glossary link}advance refunding{add glossary link} and the interest expense on both the old and new debts shall be recognized in the income statement. The funds used to consummate the advance refunding shall be reported as an asset and both the old and new debts shall be reported as liabilities. The assets and liabilities shall not be offset.

Amendments to Subtopic 958-805

91. Amend paragraphs 958-805-25-9 and 958-805-25-11, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Not-for-Profit Entities—Business Combinations
Recognition
Merger of Not-for-Profit Entities
> Classifying or Designating Assets and Liabilities in a Merger
958-805-25-9 In some situations, GAAP provides for different accounting depending on how an entity classifies or designates a particular asset or liability. Paragraphs 805-20-25-7 through 25-8 provide examples of such classifications and designations. The new NFP shall carry forward into the opening balances in its financial statements (see paragraph 958-805-45-2(a)) the merging entities’ classifications and designations unless either of the following situations applies:
  1. The merger results in a modification of a contract in a manner that would change those previous classifications or designations; for example, if the provisions of a lease are modified and the modification is not accounted for as a separate contract in accordance with
    in a way that would require the revised agreement to be considered a new agreement under
    paragraph 842-10-25-8
    840-10-35-4
  2. Reclassifications are necessary to conform accounting policies in accordance with paragraph 958-805-30-2.
958-805-25-10 In situation (a) in the preceding paragraph, the new NFP shall classify or designate the asset or liability on the basis of the contractual terms, economic conditions, its operating or accounting policies, and other pertinent conditions as they exist at the date of that modification. In situation (b) in the preceding paragraph, the new NFP shall classify or designate the asset or liability on the basis of the conformed accounting policies at the merger date.
958-805-25-11 At the merger date, the new NFP may contemplate renegotiating and modifying leases of the business or nonprofit activity acquired. Modifications made after the merger date, including those that were planned at the time of the combination, are postcombination events that should be accounted for separately by the new NFP in accordance with Topic 842
840
.

Amendments to Subtopic 958-810

92. Amend paragraph 958-810-25-10, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Not-for-Profit Entities—Consolidation
Recognition
> Special-Purpose-Entity Lessors
958-810-25-8 Notwithstanding the guidance in this Subtopic, an NFP that is engaged in leasing transactions with a special-purpose-entity (SPE) lessor shall consider whether it should consolidate such lessor. Specifically, such an NFP shall consolidate an SPE lessor if all of the following conditions exist:
  1. Substantially all of the activities of the SPE involve assets that are to be leased to a single lessee.
  2. The expected substantive residual risks and substantially all the residual rewards of the leased asset(s) and the obligation imposed by the underlying debt of the SPE reside directly or indirectly with the lessee through means such as any of the following:
    1. The lease agreement
    2. A residual value guarantee through, for example, the assumption of first-dollar-of-loss provisions
    3. A guarantee of the SPE’s debt
    4. An option granting the lessee a right to do either of the following:
      1. To purchase the leased asset at a fixed price or at a defined price other than fair value determined at the date of exercise
      2. To receive any of the lessor’s sales proceeds in excess of a stipulated amount.
  3. The owner (or owners) of record of the SPE has not made an initial substantive residual equity capital investment that is at risk during the entire lease term. This criterion shall be considered met if the majority owner (or owners) of the lessor is not an independent third party, regardless of the level of capital investment.
958-810-25-9 To satisfy the at-risk requirement in item (c) in the preceding paragraph, an initial substantive residual equity capital investment shall meet all of the following conditions:
  1. It represents an equity interest in legal form.
  2. It is subordinate to all debt interests.
  3. It represents the residual equity interest during the entire lease term.
958-810-25-10 If all of the conditions in paragraph 958-810-25-8 exist, the assets, liabilities, results of operations, and cash flows of the SPE shall be consolidated in the lessee’s financial statements. This conclusion shall be applied to SPEs that are established for both the construction and subsequent lease of an asset for which the lease would meet all of the conditions in paragraph 958-810-25-8. In those cases, the consolidation by the lessee shall begin at
the
lease inception rather than the beginning of the lease term. For related implementation guidance, see paragraphs 958-810-55-7 through 55-16
and 958-840-55-1
.
93. Amend paragraphs 958-810-55-7 and 958-810-55-14, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Special-Purpose-Entity Lessors
958-810-55-7 For an NFP that is engaged in leasing transactions with a special-purpose-entity (SPE) lessor, this implementation guidance addresses the following matters:
  1. Multiple properties within a single SPE lessor
  2. Multitiered SPE structures
  3. Payments to equity owners of an SPE during the lease term
  4. Fees paid to owners of record of an SPE
  5. Source of initial minimum equity investment
  6. Payment to owners of record of an SPE before the lease term
  7. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    Interest-only payments.
> > > Fees Paid to Owners of Record of an SPE
958-810-55-14 Paragraph
840-10-25-6(e)
842-10-30-5(e) states that, for a lessee,
minimum
lease payments include fees that are paid by the lessee to the owners of the special-purpose entity for structuring the lease transaction. Paragraph
840-10-25-6(e)
842-10-30-5(e) states that such fees shall be included as part of
minimum
lease payments (but shall not be included in the fair value of the
leased property
underlying asset) for purposes of applying the
90 percent test
criterion in paragraph
840-10-25-1(d)
842-10-25-2(d). With respect to the SPE and the application of the guidance in paragraph 958-810-25-8, the fees paid by the lessee to the owners of the SPE shall be considered a return of the owners’ initial equity capital investment. To the extent that the fees reduce the equity capital investment below the minimum amount required, the owners of record would not be considered to have a substantive residual equity capital investment that is at risk during the entire term of the lease.

Amendments to Subtopic 958-840

94. Supersede Subtopic 958-840, Not-for-Profit Entities—Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.

Amendments to Subtopic 970-10

95. Amend paragraph 970-10-05-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—General—Overall
Overview and Background
General
970-10-05-1 The Codification contains several Topics for Real Estate due to the differing accounting treatment for various real estate subindustries. The Topics include:
  1. Real Estate—General
  2. Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations
  3. Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
  4. Real Estate—Retail Land
  5. Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities.
Additionally, Subtopic
360-20
842-40 provides accounting guidance for the sale of real estate that is part of a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction.
96. Amend paragraph 970-10-15-8, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Scope and Scope Exceptions
Real Estate Project Costs
> Transactions
970-10-15-8 The guidance in the Real Estate Project Costs Subsections does not apply to the following transactions and activities:
  1. Real estate developed by an entity for use in its own operations, other than for sale or rental. In this context, real estate developed by a member of a consolidated group for use in the operations of another member of the group (for example, a manufacturing facility developed by a subsidiary for use in its parent’s operations) when the property is reported in the group’s consolidated financial statements. However, this does not include property reported in the separate financial statements of the entity that developed it.
  2. Initial direct costs of
    sales-type, operating, and other types of
    leases, which are defined in Topic 842
    840
    . The accounting for initial direct costs of leases is prescribed in that Topic.
  3. Costs directly related to manufacturing, merchandising, or service activities as distinguished from real estate activities.

Amendments to Subtopic 970-340

97. Amend paragraph 970-340-25-16, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—General—Other Assets and Deferred Costs
Recognition
Real Estate Project Costs
> Costs Incurred to Sell and Rent Real Estate Projects, Including Initial Rental Operations
> > Costs Incurred to Rent Real Estate Projects
970-340-25-16 If costs incurred to rent real estate projects, other than {add glossary link}initial direct costs{add glossary link}, under {add glossary link}operating leases{add glossary link} or direct financing leases are related to and their recovery is reasonably expected from future rental operations, they shall be capitalized. Examples are costs of model units and their furnishings, rental facilities, semipermanent signs, grand openings, and unused rental brochures. Costs that do not meet the criteria for capitalization shall be expensed as incurred, for example, rental overhead. Initial direct costs are defined in Topic 842
310
and the accounting for initial direct costs is prescribed in that Topic
Subtopic 840-20
.
98. Amend paragraph 970-340-35-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Subsequent Measurement
Real Estate Project Costs
> Determining Amounts to Be Capitalized or Expensed
> > Costs Incurred to Rent Real Estate Projects
970-340-35-2 Capitalized rental costs directly related to revenue from a specific {add glossary link}operating lease{add glossary link} or direct financing lease, other than initial direct costs, shall be amortized over the {add glossary link}lease term{add glossary link}. Capitalized rental
costs
costs, other than initial direct costs, not directly related to revenue from a specific
operating
{add glossary link}lease{add glossary link} shall be amortized over the period of expected benefit. The amortization period shall begin when the project is substantially completed and held available for occupancy. See paragraphs 970-340-25-18 through 25-19 for the definition of substantially completed and held available for occupancy. Initial direct costs are defined in Topic 842 on leases, and the accounting for initial direct costs is prescribed in that Topic. Topic 842 does not address whether a lessee that accounts for the sale or rental of real estate projects under Topic 970 should capitalize rental costs associated with ground and building leases.

Amendments to Subtopic 972-10

99. Amend paragraph 972-10-05-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations—Overall
Overview and Background
General
972-10-05-1 The Codification contains several Topics for real estate due to the differing accounting treatment for various real estate subindustries. The Topics include:
  1. Real Estate—General
  2. Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations
  3. Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
  4. Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities
  5. Real Estate—Retail Land.
See also Subtopic
360-20
842-40 for accounting guidance for the sale of real estate that is part of a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction.

Amendments to Subtopic 974-10

100. Amend paragraph 974-10-05-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
Overview and Background
General
974-10-05-1 The Codification contains several Topics for real estate due to the differing accounting treatment for various real estate subindustries. The Topics include:
  1. Real Estate—General
  2. Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations
  3. Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
  4. Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities
  5. Real Estate—Retail Land.
See also Subtopic
360-20
842-40 for accounting guidance for the sale of real estate that is part of a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction.

Amendments to Subtopic 974-840

101. Supersede Subtopic 974-840, Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts—Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.
[Paragraphs 974-840-05-1 and 974-840-15-1 moved to paragraphs 974-842-05-1 and 974-842-15-1, and paragraph 974-840-25-1 amended and moved to paragraph 974-842-25-1]

Addition of Subtopic 974-842

102. Add Subtopic 974-842, Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts— Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts—Leases
Overview and Background
General
974-842-05-1 This Subtopic addresses recognition issues for a real estate investment trust with an investment in a service corporation providing leasing services. [Content moved from paragraph 974-840-05-1]
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
> Overall Guidance
974-842-15-1 This Subtopic follows the same Scope and Scope Exceptions as outlined in the Overall Subtopic, see Section 974-10-15. [Content moved from paragraph 974-840-15-1]
Glossary
Contract
An agreement between two or more parties that creates enforceable rights and obligations.
Initial Direct Costs
Incremental costs of a lease that would not have been incurred if the lease had not been obtained.
Lease
A contract, or part of a contract, that conveys the right to control the use of identified property, plant, or equipment (an identified asset) for a period of time in exchange for consideration.
Real Estate Investment Trust
Real estate investment trusts generally are formed as trusts, associations, or corporations. They employ equity capital, coupled with substantial amounts of debt financing, in making real estate loans and investments. Real estate investment trusts must distribute substantially all of their taxable income to their shareholders annually in order to retain their favorable tax status (that is, dividends paid are treated as deductions in arriving at taxable income).
Service Corporation
A real estate investment trust may establish a service corporation to perform services for the real estate investment trust or for third parties. Service corporations may provide property management and leasing services, as well as services to acquire, develop, construct, finance, or sell real estate projects.
Recognition
General
974-842-25-1 Regardless of the method of accounting used by a real estate investment trust for its investment in a service corporation, the service corporation shall not be considered an independent third party and the amount of costs capitalized by the real estate investment trust for leasing services provided by the service corporation shall be no greater than the amount of {add glossary link}initial direct costs{add glossary link} (see paragraphs 842-10-30-9 through 30-10
840-20-25-17 through 25-20
) that would have been capitalized had the real estate investment trust incurred the costs directly. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 974-840-25-1]

Amendments to Subtopic 976-10

103. Amend paragraph 976-10-05-1, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—Retail Land—Overall
Overview and Background
General
976-10-05-1 The Codification contains several Topics for real estate due to the differing accounting treatment for various real estate subindustries. The Topics include:
  1. Real Estate—General
  2. Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations
  3. Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
  4. Real Estate—Retail Land
  5. Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities.
See also Subtopic
360-20
842-40 for accounting guidance for the sale of real estate that is part of a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction.

Amendments to Subtopic 978-10

104. Amend paragraphs 978-10-05-1 and 978-10-05-2, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities—Overall
Overview and Background
978-10-05-1 The Codification contains several Topics for real estate due to the differing accounting treatment for various real estate subindustries. The Topics include:
  1. Real Estate—General
  2. Real Estate—Common Interest Realty Associations
  3. Real Estate—Real Estate Investment Trusts
  4. Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities
  5. Real Estate—Retail Land.
See also Subtopic
360-20
842-40 for accounting guidance for the sale of real estate that is part of a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction.
978-10-05-2 The Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities Topic addresses the unique accounting and reporting issues for real estate time-sharing activities. This Topic includes the following Subtopics:
  1. Overall
  2. Statement of Cash Flows
  3. Accounting Changes and Error Corrections
  4. Receivables
  5. Inventory
  6. Other Assets and Deferred Costs
  7. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2014-09
  8. Other Expenses
  9. Consolidation
  10. Subparagraph superseded by Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02.
    Leases.

Amendments to Subtopic 978-330

105. Amend paragraph 978-330-35-6, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities—Inventory
Subsequent Measurement
> Operations during Holding Periods
978-330-35-6 If rental activities occur other than during the holding period, the corresponding units shall be depreciated and those activities shall be accounted for as rental operations in accordance with Subtopic 842-30 on leases—lessor
840-20
.

Amendments to Subtopic 978-840

106. Supersede Subtopic 978-840, Real Estate—Time-Sharing Activities—Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.

Amendments to Subtopic 980-250

107. Amend paragraph 980-250-55-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Regulated Operations—Accounting Changes and Error Corrections
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Accounting Changes
980-250-55-3 If a regulated entity changes accounting methods and the change does not affect costs that are allowable for rate-making purposes, the regulated entity would apply the change in the same manner as would an unregulated entity.
Capitalization of leases with no income statement effect (see paragraphs 980-840-45-1 through 45-4) is an example of that type of change.
If a regulated entity changes accounting methods and the change affects allowable costs for ratemaking purposes, the change generally would be implemented in the way that it is implemented for regulatory purposes. A change in the method of accounting for research and development costs, either from a policy of capitalization and amortization to one of charging those costs to expense as incurred or vice versa, is an example of that type of change.

Amendments to Subtopic 980-340

108. Amend paragraph 980-340-25-4, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Regulated Operations—Other Assets and Deferred Costs Recognition
> Effects of Regulation
> > Phase-In Plans
980-340-25-4 The following Examples illustrate various circumstances that may or may not constitute phase-in plans:
  1. Example 1 (see paragraph 980-340-55-9) illustrates a sale with leaseback as a
    capital
    finance lease.
  2. Example 2 (see paragraph 980-340-55-12) illustrates a sale with leaseback as an operating lease.
  3. Example 3 (see paragraph 980-340-55-15) illustrates a sale with leaseback with profit recognition accelerated.
  4. Example 4 (see paragraph 980-340-55-18) illustrates the modified depreciation method.
  5. Example 5 (see paragraph 980-340-55-21) illustrates deferred costs before a rate order is issued.
  6. Example 7 (see paragraph 980-340-55-39) illustrates a phase-in plan for two plants completed at different times that share common facilities.
109. Amend paragraphs 980-340-55-10 through 55-11 and their related heading, 980-340-55-13 through 55-14, and 980-340-55-16 through 55-17 and their related heading, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Illustrations
> > Example 1: Sale with Leaseback—
Capital
Finance Lease
980-340-55-9 This Example illustrates the guidance in paragraphs 980-340-25-2 through 25-3.
980-340-55-10 Utility B sells its interest in a newly completed electric generating plant for an amount equal to its cost and leases that interest back under a lease that requires equal annual payments. The arrangement would not qualify for sale and leaseback accounting in accordance with Subtopic 842-40 because the leaseback would be classified as a finance lease. However, the arrangement previously qualified as a sale and a capital leaseback in accordance with Subtopic 840-40 before the effective date of Topic 842. Therefore, Utility B continues to account for the arrangement as a sale and a leaseback.
The sale meets the criteria of Section 360-20-40 for recognition as a sale, and the leaseback meets the criteria of Subtopic 840-30 for a capital lease.
Utility B’s regulator includes the lease rentals in allowable cost as they accrue. In the past, Utility B’s regulator has treated other leases entered into by Utility B in the same manner, but those leases were for much less significant items of equipment—not for an interest in an electric generating plant.
980-340-55-11 The rate-making method described is a phase-in plan under the definition in this Subtopic. Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) applicable to entities in general require a
capital
finance lease to be accounted for much like a purchase of the
leased property
underlying asset. The resulting expense related to the lease consists of interest on the remaining lease obligation and depreciation based on the method used for similar owned
property
assets. In the early years of a lease, the lease rentals included in allowable cost as they accrue are significantly less than the sum of interest on the lease obligation and depreciation on the leased asset. Thus, significant deferrals will result. The method also defers recognition of expenses compared with the methods of expense recognition used by Utility B’s regulator for similar assets of Utility B prior to 1982 because Utility B’s interests in electric generating plants were included in allowable costs in the past based on current provisions for depreciation and for the cost of capital invested in the plants. The use of this rate-making method in the past for leases of equipment does not change this conclusion. The definition is based on the method of rate-making used prior to 1982 for similar allowable costs. Similar allowable costs would be those resulting from electric generating plants.
> > Example 2: Sale with Leaseback—Operating Lease
980-340-55-12 This Example illustrates the guidance in paragraphs 980-340-25-2 through 25-3.
980-340-55-13 Utility C sells its interest in a newly completed electric generating plant for an amount equal to its cost and leases that interest back under a lease that requires equal annual payments. The arrangement qualifies
sale meets the criteria of Section 360-20-40 for recognition
as a sale
sale,
and a
the
leaseback in accordance with
meets the criteria of
Subtopic 842-40. The leaseback is classified as
840-20 for
an operating lease. Utility C’s regulator includes the lease payments
rentals
in allowable cost as they accrue. In the past, Utility C’s regulator has treated other leases entered into by Utility C in the same manner, but those leases were not for an interest in an electric generating plant.
980-340-55-14 The rate-making method applied to Utility C is not a phase-in plan under the definition in this Subtopic because it recognizes
rent
lease expense for rate-making purposes in the same way as that expense would be recognized for entities in general for this type of lease.
> > Example 3: Sale with Leaseback—Profit Recognition Accelerated — Finance Lease
980-340-55-15 This Example illustrates the guidance in paragraphs 980-340-25-2 through 25-3.
980-340-55-16 Utility D sells its interest in a 5-year-old electric generating plant for an amount that exceeds its undepreciated cost by $500,000 and leases that interest back. The leaseback term is 20 years, and there are no renewal options. The arrangement would not qualify for sale and leaseback accounting in accordance with Subtopic 842-40 because the leaseback would be classified as a finance lease. However, the arrangement previously qualified as a sale and a capital leaseback in accordance with Subtopic 840-40 before the effective date of Topic 842. Therefore, Utility D continues to account for the arrangement as a sale and a leaseback.
The sale meets the criteria of Section 360-20-40 for recognition as a sale with full profit recognition, and the leaseback meets the criteria of Subtopic 840-20 for an operating lease.
Utility D’s regulator includes the lease
rentals
payments in allowable cost as they accrue and orders Utility D to amortize the profit, for rate-making purposes, over 10 years. The sale occurred at a time when Utility D was about to place a newly completed plant in service. Utility D has not had any similar transactions in the past.
980-340-55-17 The rate-making method described is a phase-in plan under the definition in this Subtopic. GAAP applicable to entities in general at the time of entering into this arrangement required
require
a profit on a
sale-leaseback
sale and leaseback transaction to be amortized over the term of the leaseback. Amortization of that profit, for rate-making purposes, over 10 years when GAAP applicable to entities in general at that time required
require
amortization over the 20-year leaseback term is equivalent to a deferral of allowable costs. In view of the timing of the rate order on the sale and leaseback
sale-leaseback
transaction, the presumption is that the order was issued in connection with the newly completed plant. The method cannot be compared with methods in use prior to 1982 because Utility D has had no previous transactions of this type.

Amendments to Subtopic 980-605

110. Amend paragraph 980-605-15-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Regulated Operations—Revenue Recognition
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
980-605-15-3 The scope of this Subtopic excludes long-term power supply contracts if they are within the scope of Topic 842 on leases
that
would qualify for
lease accounting pursuant to Topic 840
. For
a discussion of
the considerations required to determine whether a long-term power sales contract arrangement contains a lease, see Subtopic 842-10
840-10
.

Amendments to Subtopic 980-815

111. Amend paragraph 980-815-15-3, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
Regulated Operations—Derivatives and Hedging
Scope and Scope Exceptions
> Transactions
980-815-15-3 The scope of this Subtopic excludes long-term power supply contracts if they are within the scope of
that would qualify for lease accounting pursuant to
Topic 842 on leases
840
. For
a discussion of
the considerations required to determine whether a long-term power sales contract arrangement contains a lease, see Subtopic 842-10
840-10
.

Amendments to Subtopic 980-840

112. Supersede Subtopic 980-840, Regulated Operations—Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1.
[Paragraphs 980-840-05-1 and 980-840-15-1 moved to paragraphs 980-842-05-1 and 980-842-15-1; paragraphs 980-840-25-1 through 25-3 and their related heading amended and moved to paragraphs 980-842-25-1 through 253; paragraph 980-840-35-2 and its related heading amended and moved to paragraph 980-842-35-1; and paragraphs 980-840-45-1 through 45-4 and 980-840-55-1 amended and moved to paragraphs 980-842-45-1 through 45-4 and 980-842-55-1]

Addition of Subtopic 980-842

113. Add Subtopic 980-842, Regulated Operations—Leases, with a link to transition paragraph 842-10-65-1, as follows:
[For ease of readability, the new Subtopic is not underlined.]
Regulated Operations—Leases
Overview and Background
General
980-842-05-1 This Subtopic provides guidance on accounting for leases for entities with regulated operations. [Content moved from paragraph 980-840- 05-1]
Scope and Scope Exceptions
General
> Overall Guidance
980-842-15-1 This Subtopic follows the same Scope and Scope Exceptions as outlined in the Overall Subtopic, see Section 980-10-15. [Content moved from paragraph 980-840-15-1]
Glossary
Allowable Costs
All costs for which revenue is intended to provide recovery. Those costs can be actual or estimated. In that context, allowable costs include interest cost and amounts provided for earnings on shareholders’ investments.
Phase-In Plan
Any method of recognition of allowable costs in rates that meets all of the following criteria:
  1. The method was adopted by the regulator in connection with a major, newly completed plant of the regulated entity or of one of its suppliers or a major plant scheduled for completion in the near future.
  2. The method defers the rates intended to recover allowable costs beyond the period in which those allowable costs would be charged to expense under generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) applicable to entities in general.
  3. The method defers the rates intended to recover allowable costs beyond the period in which those rates would have been ordered under the ratemaking methods routinely used prior to 1982 by that regulator for similar allowable costs of that regulated entity.
Recognition
General
>
Sale-Leaseback
Sale and Leaseback Transactions
980-842-25-1 Accounting for sale and leaseback
sale-leaseback
transactions in accordance with the guidance in Subtopic 842-40
840-40
may result in a difference between the timing of income and expense recognition required by that Subtopic and the timing of income and expense recognition for rate-making purposes. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-25-1] 980-842-25-2 That difference shall be accounted for as follows:
  1. If the difference in timing of income and expense recognition constitutes all or a part of a phase-in plan, it shall be accounted for in accordance with Subtopic 980-340.
  2. Otherwise, the timing of income and expense recognition related to the sale and leaseback
    sale-leaseback
    transaction shall be modified as necessary to conform to the Regulated Operations Topic. That modification required for a transaction that is accounted
    for by the deposit method or
    for as a financing is further described in the following paragraph and paragraphs 980-840-35-1 through 35-2. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-25-2]
980-842-25-3 The difference between the amount of income or expense recognized for a transaction that is not part of a phase-in plan and that is accounted for
by the deposit method or
as a financing under Subtopic 842-40
840-40
and the amount of income or expense included in allowable cost for rate-making purposes shall be capitalized or accrued as a separate regulatory-created asset or liability, as appropriate, if that difference meets the criteria of the Regulated Operations Topic. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-25-3]
Subsequent Measurement
General
>
Sale-Leaseback
Sale and Leaseback Transactions
980-842-35-1
Similarly, if the sale-leaseback
If the sale and leaseback transaction is accounted for as a financing and the sale is recognized for rate-making purposes, the total of interest imputed under the interest method for the financing and the
amortization
depreciation of the underlying asset shall be modified to equal the total
rental
lease expense and the gain or loss allowable for rate-making purposes. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-84035-2]
Other Presentation Matters
General
> Treatment of Leases for Rate-Making Purposes
980-842-45-1 Topic 842
840
specifies criteria for classification of leases and the method of accounting for each type of lease. For rate-making purposes, a lease may be treated as an operating lease even though the lease would be classified as a finance
capital
lease under those criteria. In effect, the amount of the lease payment is included in allowable costs as rental expense in the period it covers. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-45-1]
980-842-45-2 For financial reporting purposes, the classification of the lease is not affected by the regulator’s actions. The regulator cannot eliminate an obligation that was not imposed by the regulator (see paragraph 980-405-40-1). Also, by including the lease payments as allowable costs, the regulator sets rates that will provide revenue approximately equal to the combined amount of the
capitalized leased
right -of-use asset and interest on the lease liability
obligation
over the term of the lease and, thus, provides reasonable assurance of the existence of an asset (see paragraph 980-340-25-1). Accordingly, regulated entities shall classify leases in accordance with Topic 842
840
. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-45-2]
980-842-45-3 The nature of the expense elements related to a finance
capitalized
lease (amortization of the
leased
right-of-use asset and interest on the lease
obligation
liability) is not changed by the regulator’s action; however, the timing of expense recognition related to the lease would be modified to conform to the rate treatment. Thus, amortization of the
leased
right-of-use asset shall be modified so that the total of interest on the lease liability
obligation
and amortization of the
leased
right -of-use asset shall equal the
rental
lease expense that was allowed for rate-making purposes. For newly completed plants such regulatory treatment could result in a phase-in plan as defined in Subtopic 980-340. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-45-3]
980-842-45-4 Paragraph
840-30-45-3
842-20-45-4 states that an entity is not required to classify the interest expense
or
and amortization of the right-of-use asset in a finance lease
leased assets to be classified
as separate items in an income statement. For example, the amounts of amortization of the right-of-use asset
capitalized leased nuclear fuel
and interest on the related lease
obligation
liability could each be combined with other costs and
displayed as fuel cost
presented in a manner consistent with how the entity presents depreciation or amortization of similar assets and other interest expense. However, the disclosure of total interest cost incurred, required by Subtopic 835-20, shall include the interest on that lease liability,
obligation ;
and the disclosure of the total amortization of the entity’s right-of-use assets arising under a finance lease and interest on finance lease liabilities
charge
, required by Section 842-20-50
Topic 840
, shall include amortization of that
leased asset
right-of-use asset and interest on that lease liability. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-45-4]
Implementation Guidance and Illustrations
> Implementation Guidance
> > Income Statement Classification
980-842-55-1 Paragraph
840-30-45-3
842-20-45-4 states that an entity is not required to classify the interest expense
or
and amortization of
leased assets
the right-of-use asset in a finance lease as separate items in an income statement. However, that paragraph also states that the interest expense and
unless the charge to income resulting from
the amortization of the right-of-use asset in a finance lease should be presented in a manner consistent with how the entity presents depreciation or amortization of similar assets and other interest expense
assets recorded under capital leases is included by the lessee with depreciation expense and the fact that it is so included is disclosed, the amortization charge shall be separately disclosed by the lessee in the financial statements or footnotes thereto
. For example, the amounts of amortization of
capitalized leased nuclear fuel
the right-of-use asset and interest on the related lease
obligation
liability could each be combined with other costs and presented in a manner consistent with how the entity presents depreciation or amortization of similar assets and other interest expense
displayed as fuel cost
. However, in that circumstance, the disclosure of total interest cost incurred, required by Subtopic 835-20, would include the interest on that lease liability,
obligation;
and the disclosure of the total amortization of the entity’s right-of-use assets arising under a finance lease and interest on finance lease liabilities
charge
, required by Section 842-20-50
paragraph 840-30-45-3
, would include amortization of that
leased asset
right -of-use asset and interest on that lease liability. [Content amended as shown and moved from paragraph 980-840-55-1]
114. Amend paragraph 205-40-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
205-40-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
205-40-55-3
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
115. Amend paragraph 210-20-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
210-20-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Contract
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessee
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessor
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Leveraged Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Underlying Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
210-20-15-3
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
210-20-60-4
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
116. Amend paragraph 230-10-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
230-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Contract
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Liability
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Payments
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Term
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessee
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessor
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Right-of-Use Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Underlying Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-50-4
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-55-10
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-55-11
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-55-13
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-55-15
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-55-19
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
230-10-55-20
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
117. Amend paragraph 255-10-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
255-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Contract
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Direct Financing Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Payments
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Receivable
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Term
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessee
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessor
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Leveraged Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Net Investment in the Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Sales-Type Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Underlying Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Unguaranteed Residual Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
255-10-55-6
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
255-10-55-7A
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
255-10-55-8
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
255-10-55-10
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
255-10-55-11
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
118. Amend paragraph 270-10-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
270-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessee
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessor
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Underlying Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
270-10-50-6A
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
119. Amend paragraph 274-10-00-1, by adding the following item to the table, as follows:
274-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
274-10-50-2
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
120. Amend paragraph 310-10-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
310-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Commencement Date of the Lease (Commencement Date)
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Contract
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Direct Financing Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Payments
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Receivable
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Term
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessee
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessor
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Leveraged Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Sales-Type Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Underlying Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
310-10-35-13
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
310-10-40-5
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
310-10-55-14
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
121. Amend paragraph 310-20-00-1, by adding the following item to the table, as follows:
310-20-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
310-20-15-1
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
122. Amend paragraph 310-30-00-1, by adding the following item to the table, as follows:
310-30-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
310-30-15-2
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
123. Amend paragraph 310-40-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
310-40-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Contract
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Modification
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
310-40-15-11
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
124. Amend paragraph 323-740-00-1, by adding the following item to the table, as follows:
323-740-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
323-740-25-3
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
125. Amend paragraph 340-10-00-1, by adding the following item to the table, as follows:
340-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
340-10-60-1
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
126. Amend paragraph 360-10-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
360-10-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Lease
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lease Term
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessee
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Lessor
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Performance Obligation
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Revenue
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Right-of-Use Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
Underlying Asset
Added
2016-02
02/25/2016
360-10-05-1
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
360-10-15-4
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
360-10-30-8
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
360-10-40-2
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
360-10-55-43
Amended
2016-02
02/25/2016
127. Amend paragraph 360-20-00-1, by adding the following items to the table, as follows:
360-20-00-1 The following table identifies the changes made to this Subtopic.
Paragraph
Action
Accounting Standards Update
Date
Conduit Debt Securities
Superseded
2016-02
02/25/2016
Cost Recovery Method
Superseded
2016-02